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Thomas Reid (1710–1796) was the originator of the Scottish philosophy of common sense, an approach that claims reality is objective and knowable, made up of material objects, and understandable by ordinary men. Common sense philosophy developed in opposition to the pervasive skepticism of the period, best exemplified by David Hume. A professor of philosophy at King’s College, Aberdeen, Reid was chosen to be the successor to Adam Smith as the chair of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. From that position, Reid played an important role in the Scottish Enlightenment as professor, scholar, and correspondent. While Reid was not an economist, he did write on important theoretical and philosophical issues in moral philosophy, the natural sciences and mathematics. Reid may prove additionally interesting to economists for his insightful critique of Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments.
This chapter will consider the media and white western society’s use of various ‘othering’ terms at the personal, social and political levels to misconstrue and…
This chapter will consider the media and white western society’s use of various ‘othering’ terms at the personal, social and political levels to misconstrue and inaccurately describe Islam and events and actions involving Muslim people. A psychological analysis of the personal and social impact on the misuse of ‘othering’ terminology will be undertaken to explore how British African-Caribbean converts to Islam, as a group, may find themselves antagonised and alienated by descriptions made about Islamic groups and behaviours misapplied and associated to Islamic religious and cultural practices. The chapter will consider how this antagonism may lead to alienation which, in turn may result in behaviours perceived to come about as a result of radicalisation. The chapter will consider whether British African-Caribbean converts to Islam are responding in a way which is the result of a process of ‘radicalisation’ or more reacting to antagonism and alienation affecting poor mental health due to negative media and dominant social group portrayal of black people. A critique of the media portrayal in depicting Muslims and Islam as ‘the other’ rather than depicting terrorist activity and terrorist groups as anti-Islamic, separate and distinct from Islam will be considered. Missed opportunities for critical review of inaccurate and racist terminology and its potential impact on British African-Caribbean converts to Islam will be explored.
Strategies for decreasing antagonism, alienation and violence through the review of terminology and social reclaiming will be suggested. The process of ethnic identity development and an evolving British Muslim identity will also be considered and how understanding and knowledge of this minority ethnic group identity process can be used to reduce the process of antagonism, alienation and violence. Psychological theories of minority group ethnic identity development will be explored and applied to the development of an alienated psychology of British African-Caribbean converts to Islam. Minority group identity theories relevance for individual and group intervention with alienated British African-Caribbean converts to Islam will be discussed in terms of the building and maintenance of a positive sense of self and affirmation to one’s religious group membership. Affirmation of ethnicity membership is proposed as a more active activity among groups who face greater discrimination as a means of maintaining self-esteem and group cohesion and connectedness.
Discusses British Rail’s (BR’s) organizational transformation during the 1980s and in particular the position of R.B. Reid, chairman of the British Railways Board (BRB…
Discusses British Rail’s (BR’s) organizational transformation during the 1980s and in particular the position of R.B. Reid, chairman of the British Railways Board (BRB) during that period. As a career railwayman, Reid was an atypical choice to chair the BRB. Considers how Reid brought his professional knowledge and experience to bear in carrying through arguably one of the most fundamental processes of change and organizational development that BR has experienced in the past 40 years.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the ontological and epistemological basis of classification.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the ontological and epistemological basis of classification.
Attention is drawn to a 1785 article on abstraction by Thomas Reid and the contents and theories of the article are explained. The Reid article both provides a sound approach to classification and is interesting historically as it influenced the classification pioneer Charles Ammi Cutter who, in turn, is responsible for much of the modern theory of functional bibliography. Reid's account is supplemented by brief descriptions of fallibilism and fuzziness. An associated view, Aristotelian essentialism is explained and criticized. Some observations are offered on the role of prototypes in classification and on the monothetic‐polythetic distinction.
Reid's theories, suitably embedded in fallibilism and augmented with a respect for truth, provide a sound ontological and epistemological basis for classification.
Reid's essay, together with an appreciation of fallibility and determinate and indeterminate properties, amount to a good basic theoretical foundation for cataloging.
The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the use of IMC in new high technology product launches among companies that operate in different fields of…
The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the use of IMC in new high technology product launches among companies that operate in different fields of business, yet providing similar innovation to the same market.
A qualitative case research methodology is applied. Multiple sources of evidence are gathered. These include interviews with key informants and documentary data, and IMC mini audits. Concerning the theoretical approach, the related literature in IMC, new product launch and high technology marketing is reviewed.
IMC is vital to high technology marketers launching new products and services. The analyses reveal that IMC practices vary across firm size, industry type, product/service orientation, and customer orientation.
Companies of different types can be on an equal footing in their integration efforts. Whether service‐ or product‐oriented companies, business‐to‐consumer or business‐to‐business marketers, companies from all backgrounds can achieve higher levels of IMC. What matters most is customer‐centricity, i.e. having a close interaction with customers and being responsive to their feedback.
The study contributes to the integrated marketing communications research field in several important respects. First, it focuses on IMC usage among firms in different industries. Second, it takes a genuinely refreshing view on studying IMC strategies by focusing on usage of IMC as part of new high technology product launch strategy.
Aberdeen University Library's digitisation programme has reached an advanced stage, with three projects all designed to deliver images (of a 300‐page medieval liturgical text, of the papers of a nineteenth‐century philosopher, and of 1000 Jacobite engravings) via the Web. A comparison of these projects highlights differences in image capture pathways, quality requirements and file storage solutions.
In my discussions with managers, they have indicated that the key skills they need to develop are how to be more effective in meetings. A major aspect of this is how to understand and respond effectively. This I call conversation control. This is a skill that can be developed through training. This article shows some of the methods that can be used. As a starting point, conversation control means controlling your own conversation rather than controlling other people's. A major skill in conversation control is knowing when to concentrate on the problem and when to offer a solution. Too often, people fail because they offer solutions before they understand the problem. Knowing how to manage the understanding of problems and the development of solutions is a key conversational skill. This article will therefore introduce the following important issues:
En 1977, les autorités municipales de Montréal ont décrété que 10% du territoire serait dorénavant zoné espaces verts. La plupart des quartiers avaient suffisamment de…
En 1977, les autorités municipales de Montréal ont décrété que 10% du territoire serait dorénavant zoné espaces verts. La plupart des quartiers avaient suffisamment de terrains disponibles pour respecter cette norme. A la même époque, l′administration municipale a mis en place un programme municipal de jardins communautaires.
Les jardins communautaires offrent l′opportunité aux citadins de cultiver leurs légumes et de fraterniser. À Montréal, 1.5% de la population adulte jardine dans un jardin communautaire municipal. Les jardins sont dispersés sur tout le territoire et sont facilement accessibles, soit 8200 jardinets dans 97 jardins communautaires. Dans les arrondissements les plus peuplés, il faut attendre de 1 à 3 ans sur la liste d′attente avant d′accéder à un jardinet. Le programme comporte un minimum de réglementation afin de simplifier l′activité.
En terme de coût, la contribution moyenne d′un jardinier revient à 10$/jardinet pour un lopin de terre mesurant 3m x 6m. Avant la réorganisation municipale de 2002, suite à laquelle chaque arrondissement gérait ses propres jardins communautaires (Ville de Montréal), l′investissement de la municipalité, il est d′environ 0,2% du budget du Service des sports, des loisirs et du développement social.
Le jardinage communautaire permet l′auto-production d′aliments de qualité sur des terrains gérés par la municipalité. Cette activité populaire favorise l′estime de soi et l′acquisition de nouvelles connaissances pratiques et techniques. A Montréal, les saisons de cultures sont réduites dû aux longs hivers et ne permettent qu′une récolte; ainsi, pendant les mois de récolte, cette initiative municipale allège la problématique de la sécurité alimentaire. Le programme des jardins communautaires de Montréal est considéré comme le programme de jardinage collectif le plus accessible et le mieux organisé en Amérique (Reid, 2006).
A further illustration of the increasing grip of the law of equity in enabling monies that are part of a fraud to be recovered by the victim is provided by the Privy Council decision in Attorney‐General for Hong Kong v Warwick Reid. Previous decisions of English and Commonwealth courts based on the old established principles of equity have employed a constructive trust to recover monies that are the proceeds of fraud or are part of a fraudulent design. AG for Hong Kong v Reid showed how the constructive trust would operate to enable the Crown to recover bribes that had been paid to a Hong Kong public officer.