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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Jacqueline Goodman

This paper investigates why mothers are losing to fathers in contested child custody battles that have occurred between 1980 and 2003. It employs quantitative…

Abstract

This paper investigates why mothers are losing to fathers in contested child custody battles that have occurred between 1980 and 2003. It employs quantitative, qualitative, and contextual strategies to understand the complex set of forces involved. The findings suggest that single mothers and children are increasingly trapped in a war zone between cost conscious policymakers ideologically opposed to the welfare state, angry fathers shouldering the burden of a shift from public to private transfers of funding in the form of child support, religious zealots intent on turning back the clock to a mythical patriarchal Eden, and the legal doctrine of gender neutrality reflecting these political forces.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-262-7

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Louise Griffiths, Di Bailey and Karen Slade

Without exception, research on the contribution of the Prison Listener Scheme as a form of peer support for those who self-harm in custody has focussed on men in prison…

Abstract

Purpose

Without exception, research on the contribution of the Prison Listener Scheme as a form of peer support for those who self-harm in custody has focussed on men in prison. Women’s experience of custody is shaped by their experiences of hegemonic masculinity that also mediate through women’s roles as mothers and caregivers. Women’s self-harm is similarly influenced by these gendered experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Listener Scheme as a form of peer-to-peer support for women contributes to women managing their self-harm in a female prison.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used a case study design with a mixed-methods approach using a quantitative questionnaire with prison staff (n = 65) and women in custody who had self-harmed (n = 30). Qualitative methods included a focus group with Prison Listeners (n10) and semi-structured interviews with women who self-harm (n10) and prison staff (n10). Four days were also spent observing the prison environment.

Findings

Findings suggest that women seek support from other women as peer Listeners for three main reasons; their previous difficult experiences with men, a displacement of the mother role and their attachment needs in custody. Research suggests that women often have significant addictions and mental health concerns and are more likely than their male counterparts to engage in self-harm (Prison Reform Trust, 2017). In addition, women’s self-harm acts as a coping method for “intrapersonal issues” which documents self-harm as a result of frustration and lack of control in custody as opposed to “interpersonal issues” which documents self-harm as a result of relationship difficulties with partners (Walker et al., 2017). This paper suggests that peer support schemes internationally should be tailored to providing support for these types of gendered experience to support women who self-harm in custody. This has implications for the training and support of Listeners in women’s prisons.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory research was conducted in one female prison and while can be considered to test proof of concept is limited in its generalisability.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that Listeners providing peer-to-peer support for women in custody who self-harm may encounter triggers for this behaviour based on women’s experiences including; how women relate to men; women’s experience of the way custody displaces their role as mothers and women’s need for safe attachments in custody. These gendered experiences have implications for the training and development of peer support schemes in women’s prisons, such as the Listener scheme. Further research is needed to compare the gendered types of support Prison Listeners provide depending on whether they are in male or female prisons.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Brian L. Withrow and Brien Bolin

To document the police protective custody (PPC) process and in doing so develop a predictive model to better inform police decision makers on the factors that are more…

Abstract

Purpose

To document the police protective custody (PPC) process and in doing so develop a predictive model to better inform police decision makers on the factors that are more likely to result in the state maintaining custody of a child.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the current study were gathered through a series of focus groups and 6,607 existing records of PPC admissions into a children's home in the Wichita Children's Home (WCH) (Kansas). Systematic predictive modeling (logistic regression) was used to differentiate between children that are likely to need continued involvement of the child welfare system and those who could remain in the custody of their families.

Findings

Documents the PPC process by which a child is referred to be housed by WCH by a law enforcement agency. Reports on the design of a decision model which identifies the factors affecting the outcome of the PPC process.

Originality/value

Provides recommendations for streamlining the PPC process as well as the improvement of police policies and procedures.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Maggie Leese and Sean Russell

The issue of mental health and policing is a subject that has been debated from a number of different perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings…

Abstract

Purpose

The issue of mental health and policing is a subject that has been debated from a number of different perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a case study that explored mental health difficulties and vulnerability within police custody.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the study was qualitative, and it utilised telephone, semi-structured interviews with all levels of the custody staff. This approach was taken because the aim of the study was to explore how people in different roles within the organisation worked to safeguard vulnerable people in custody.

Findings

The findings from this study identified a number of interesting themes that could be explored further in later studies. Overall, the respondents expressed frustration that vulnerable people find themselves in police custody for low-level crime, when it could have been avoided with improved mental health services in the community. Additionally, the findings demonstrated that despite the processes that are designed to safeguard the detainee, tensions still exist including, timely access to mental health assessments, appropriate training and support for staff and the use of appropriate adults.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study was small in scale, the custody facility delivered detainee facilities for about 5,000 individuals per year. The research and information obtained supported the police lead for mental health to identify opportunities for improving the customer journey, as well as recognising the need for further research to identify how officers and staff relate to vulnerable individuals in contact with the police service.

Originality/value

Despite the limitations of the study, the findings have captured interesting data from a range of professionals working in one police custody suite, and therefore it presents a holistic overview of some key issues around mental health, vulnerability and safeguarding within the context of police custody.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Ian Cummins

The custody environment is not designed nor can it hope to meet the needs of individuals who are experiencing acute mental distress. The article reports the findings of…

Abstract

The custody environment is not designed nor can it hope to meet the needs of individuals who are experiencing acute mental distress. The article reports the findings of analysis of the recorded incidents of self‐harm that occurred in the custody of one English police force during an eight‐month period in 2006. There were 168 such incidents in this period. The ratio of male/female detained persons, who harmed themselves was 3:1. The most common method used was a ligature either from the detained person's own clothes or the paper suits that are used in custody. Alcohol or substance misuse was identified as a clear risk factor. The police response is analysed and recommendations made for improved access to health care for those in custody.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

BRIAN CARROLL

The author, both an attorney and CPA, explores the complex and perhaps out‐of‐date Advisors Act Rule 206(4)‐2, the Custody Rule. He explores the rule and the obligations…

Abstract

The author, both an attorney and CPA, explores the complex and perhaps out‐of‐date Advisors Act Rule 206(4)‐2, the Custody Rule. He explores the rule and the obligations and concerns that arise when an investment advisor is deemed to have custody.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Jonathan Houdmont

Stress research in the UK policing has largely neglected to account for variance in the type of psychosocial hazard officers are exposed to across policing roles…

Abstract

Purpose

Stress research in the UK policing has largely neglected to account for variance in the type of psychosocial hazard officers are exposed to across policing roles, highlighting the need for role‐specific research that is capable of informing similarly specific stress reduction interventions. This study aimed to develop and assess exposure to a taxonomy of psychosocial hazards specific to the UK police custody work, consider the burnout profile of custody officers, explore relations between psychosocial hazard exposure and burnout, and compare the exposures of burned out and non‐burned out custody officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Preliminary focus groups identified a series of psychosocial hazards specific to the custody officer role. A questionnaire administered to custody officers within a UK territorial police force assessed exposure to these psychosocial hazards and burnout.

Findings

Twenty‐six custody‐specific psychosocial hazards were identified, across nine themes. The proportion of custody officers who reported a high degree of burnout was above that found in normative data. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that exposures were positively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Unrelated t‐tests showed that respondents who reported high burnout also reported significantly higher exposures across all nine psychosocial hazard themes than those with sub‐threshold burnout scores.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the stress‐related working conditions of the UK custody officers. It provides a foundation for future large‐scale longitudinal studies concerned with validating the current findings and improving the health of officers engaged in this unique policing role.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2001

Eric Blaauw

This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities…

Abstract

This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities, interaction and differential treatment are substandard in Dutch police stations, but dependent of the organisational size, degree of specialisation of the custodial task and extensiveness of duty‐prescriptions and registration. Detention circumstances in police stations are worse than in remand centres. The second study reveals high prevalence rates of symptoms of depression and somatisation (SCL‐90) among police custody detainees. Police custody detainees' symptom levels are higher than those in a jail population and a male general population. The third study addresses the prevalence rates of suicides and other deaths in Dutch police custody in the period 1983‐1993 and shows that the mortality rate, suicide rate and deadly poisoning rate are higher than those in remand centres and the general population. The findings of the three studies demonstrate that police custody is an area of concern.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Matthew T. Wirig and Kate S. Poorbaugh

To summarize guidance from the Securities and Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) Division of Investment Management regarding Rule 206(4)-2 (the “Custody Rule”) under the…

Abstract

Purpose

To summarize guidance from the Securities and Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) Division of Investment Management regarding Rule 206(4)-2 (the “Custody Rule”) under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

Design/methodology/approach

This article summarizes the SEC’s guidance on “inadvertent custody” created by broad authority in custodial agreements, custody created by standing letters of instruction, and adviser authority to transfer funds or securities between two or more of a client's accounts.

Findings

This article concludes that firms should review their existing client custodial agreements, standing letters of instruction and other arrangements carefully to determine whether they have custody and whether additional action is necessary.

Originality/value

This article contains information on the Custody Rule and related SEC guidance from experienced securities and financial services regulatory lawyers.

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Alberto Yohananoff

The purpose of this paper was to assess whether the criteria that have been developed by mental health professionals to judge the quality of child custody reports matches…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to assess whether the criteria that have been developed by mental health professionals to judge the quality of child custody reports matches the criteria employed by members of the legal profession.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the literature on the standards that have been developed to assess the quality of child custody reports and compare it to the criteria used by attorneys and judges.

Findings

The broad criteria used by mental health professionals in assessing the quality of child custody reports mostly matches those employed by judges and attorneys.

Research limitations/implications

There is limited research that focusses on a detailed, qualitative analysis of each component of a child custody report.

Practical implications

Is it essential that a qualitative analysis of child custody reports be performed because it would impact on how professional approach such evaluations.

Originality/value

Having research focussing on a detailed qualitative analysis of child custody evaluations may enhance the quality of such products.

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