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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Akinloluwa Samuel Babalola

Values of parameters such as temperature, humidity, number of plastic products and the location of plastic injection moulds are required to determine the efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

Values of parameters such as temperature, humidity, number of plastic products and the location of plastic injection moulds are required to determine the efficiency of plastic injection moulds with a view to improving the quality of the outputs. This article determined the appropriate sensors for the measurement of these essential parameters in the most suitable form of representation of the data to aid a proficient analysis of the data.

Design/methodology/approach

The outputs of these sensors were obtained by connecting the sensors to the general-purpose input/output (GPIO) pins of a Raspberry Pi and writing a Python programme for the connected GPIO pins. The values of the outputs of these sensors were represented in a graphical form. The connection of the Raspberry Pi and the sensors were done with a full-sized breadboard and jumper wires. A computer-aided design (CAD) of the connections was produced using Fritzing software.

Findings

The appropriate sensors determined are MLX90614 infrared thermometer sensor, DHT11 humidity sensor, pixy2 vision sensor and Neo-6m GPS sensor. This study proposed that the sensors analytic system be applied on an industrial plastic injection mould to measure and display the various parameters of the injection moulds for the purpose of understanding and improving the performance of the injection mould

Originality/value

An electronic system that provides the continuous values of essential parameters of a plastic injection mould in operation.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Zoheir Kordrostami, Kourosh Hassanli and Amir Akbarian

The purpose of this study is to find a new design that can increase the sensitivity of the sensor without sacrificing the linearity. A novel and very efficient method for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to find a new design that can increase the sensitivity of the sensor without sacrificing the linearity. A novel and very efficient method for increasing the sensitivity of MEMS pressure sensor has been proposed for the first time. Rather than perforation, we propose patterned thinning of the diaphragm so that specific regions on it are thinner. This method allows the diaphragm to deflect more in response with regard to the pressure. The best excavation depth has been calculated and a pressure sensor with an optimal pattern for thinned regions has been designed. Compared to the perforated diaphragm with the same pattern, larger output voltage is achieved for the proposed sensor. Unlike the perforations that have to be near the edges of the diaphragm, it is possible for the thin regions to be placed around the center of the diaphragm. This significantly increases the sensitivity of the sensor. In our designation, we have reached a 60 per cent thinning (of the diaphragm area) while perforations larger than 40 per cent degrade the operation of the sensor. The proposed method is applicable to other MEMS sensors and actuators and improves their ultimate performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Instead of perforating the diaphragm, we propose a patterned thinning scheme which improves the sensor performance.

Findings

By using thinned regions on the diaphragm rather than perforations, the sensitivity of the sensor was improved. The simulation results show that the proposed design provides larger membrane deflections and higher output voltages compared to the pressure sensors with a normal or perforated diaphragm.

Originality/value

The proposed MEMS piezoelectric pressure sensor for the first time takes advantage of thinned diaphragm with optimum pattern of thinned regions, larger outputs and larger sensitivity compared with the simple or perforated diaphragm pressure sensors.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Kamil Janeczek, Aneta Araźna, Wojciech Stęplewski, Marek Kościelski, Krzysztof Lipiec, Ireneusz Rafalik, Sebastian Karolewski, Dorota Liszewska and Anna Sitek

The purpose of this study is to design and fabricate a simple passive sensor circuitry embedded into a printed circuit board (PCB) and then to examine its properties.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to design and fabricate a simple passive sensor circuitry embedded into a printed circuit board (PCB) and then to examine its properties.

Design/methodology/approach

A passive sensor transponder integrated circuit (IC) working in the high frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz frequency band was selected for this study. A loop antenna was designed to make the reported sensor circuitry readable. Next, the sensor circuitry was fabricated and embedded into a PCB with the proposed technologies. Finally, properties of the embedded structures were examined as well-functional parameters of the sensor circuitries.

Findings

The described investigation results confirmed that the proposed technologies using an epoxy resin or standard materials used for PCB’s production allowed to successfully produce sensors embedded into PCBs. This technology did not have a negative significant impact either on quality of solder joints of the assembled transponder IC or on functional properties of the embedded sensor. Apart from the identification data, the reported sensor can provide information about a selected property of its environment, e.g. temperature when its internal temperature sensitive element is used or other factors with the use of external sensitive elements, such as humidity.

Research limitations/implications

It is planned to carry on the reported investigations to examine other types of sensor circuitries capable of indicating e.g. humidity level and to evaluate influence of the proposed technology on their functional properties.

Practical implications

The reported sensor circuitries can be successfully used in electronic industry in internet of things systems not only to identify monitored electronic devices, but also to control selected parameters of external environment. This creates opportunity to detect device malfunction by detecting local temperature growth or to analyze its environment, which might allow to predict failure of controlled products using radio waves. This advantage seems to be extremely beneficial for applications, such as space, aviation or military, in which embedded sensor systems may lead to enhancing reliability of electronic devices by reacting on occurred failures in a more efficient way.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates valuable information for engineers conducting research on sensor components embedded into PCBs. The reported technologies are quite simple and cost-effective because of the use of standard materials known for PCB’s production or an epoxy resin which could be treated as an additional encapsulant material enhancing mechanical properties of the embedded sensor transponder IC.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Igor S. Nadezhdin and Aleksey G. Goryunov

Differential pressure is an important technological parameter, one urgent task of which is control and measurement. To date, the lion’s share of research in this area has…

Abstract

Purpose

Differential pressure is an important technological parameter, one urgent task of which is control and measurement. To date, the lion’s share of research in this area has focused on the development and improvement of differential pressure sensors. The purpose of this paper is to develop a smart differential pressure sensor with improved operational and metrological characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The operating principle of the developed pressure sensor is based on the capacitive measurement principle. The measuring unit of the developed pressure sensor is based on a differential capacitive sensitive element. Programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) technology has been used to develop the electronics unit.

Findings

The use of a differential capacitive sensitive element allows the unit to compensate for the influence of interference (for example, temperature) on the measurement result. With the use of PSoC technology, it is also possible to increase the noise immunity of the developed smart differential pressure sensor and provide an unparalleled combination of flexibility and integration of analog and digital functionality.

Originality/value

The use of PSoC technology in the developed smart differential pressure sensor has many indisputable advantages, as the size of the entire circuit can be minimized. As a result, the circuit has improved noise immunity. Accordingly, the procedure for debugging and changing the software of the electronics unit is simplified. These features make development and manufacturing cost effective.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Djamila Cherid, Nouredine Bourahla, Mohamed Said Laghoub and Anis Mohabeddine

Despite the fast progress in structural health monitoring (SHM), the efficient use in practice of emerging techniques for large civil engineering structures is still a…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the fast progress in structural health monitoring (SHM), the efficient use in practice of emerging techniques for large civil engineering structures is still a challenge. This paper outlines a practical framework to optimize both the number and the locations of sensors to measure frequency response functions (FRFs) that will be processed and used to predict the location and the damage level in a model of an existing suspension bridge.

Design/methodology/approach

Sensors number and placement (SNPO) procedure is proposed and carried out on a 3D FE model of the 502 m long Oued Dib suspension bridge (Algeria) to determine the degrees of freedom (DOFs) that will receive the sensors. For this purpose, accessible candidate positions on the model are first determined and then reduced by taking the DOFs with the lowest values of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) associated with each of the DOFs taken individually. A genetic algorithm with an objective function equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the non-diagonal elements of the MAC matrix and a mutation function that allows increasing and decreasing the number of the chromosomes (sensors) of the individuals showed stable convergence to optimal solutions. FRFs at sensor positions generated from the 3D FE model and altered with artificial noise to simulate experimental conditions have been used to constitute a database to train and test a feed-forward neural network.

Findings

A framework for SHM integrating a genetic algorithm to optimize both the number and placement of the sensors on the structure.

Research limitations/implications

The procedure can be applied only for single predefined/potential damage detection.

Practical implications

The evidence from this study suggests that the proposed procedure provides a consistent framework to implement a SHM scheme for existing large infrastructures.

Social implications

Vital infrastructures require special structural protection that can be achieved through effective SHM. This study contributes to the deployment of SHM for existing civil engineering structures.

Originality/value

In addition to the integrated SHM framework proposed in this study, the latter includes an efficient genetic algorithm capable to optimize both the number and the placement of the sensors.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Xinjian Ma, Shiqian Liu, Huihui Cheng and Weizhi Lyu

This paper aims to focus on the sensor fault-tolerant control (FTC) for civil aircraft under exterior disturbance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the sensor fault-tolerant control (FTC) for civil aircraft under exterior disturbance.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a three-step cubature Kalman filter (TSCKF) is designed to detect and isolate the sensor fault and to reconstruct the sensor signal. Meanwhile, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) is designed for disturbance estimation. The NDO and the TSCKF are combined together and an NDO-TSCKF is proposed to solve the problem of sensor faults and bounded disturbances simultaneously. Furthermore, an FTC scheme is designed based on the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) and the NDO-TSCKF.

Findings

The method is verified by a Cessna 172 aircraft model under bias gyro fault and constant angular rate disturbance. The proposed NDO-TSCKF has the ability of signal reconstruction and disturbance estimation. The proposed FTC scheme is also able to solve the sensor fault and disturbance simultaneously.

Research limitations/implications

NDO-TSCKF is the novel algorithm used in sensor signal reconstruction for aircraft. Then, disturbance observer-based FTC can improve the flight control system performances when the system with faults.

Practical implications

The NDO-TSCKF-based FTC scheme can be used to solve the sensor fault and exterior disturbance in flight control. For example, the bias gyro fault with constant angular rate disturbance of a civil aircraft is studied.

Social implications

Signal reconstruction for critical sensor faults and disturbance observer-based FTC for civil aircraft are useful in modern civil aircraft design and development.

Originality/value

This is the research paper studies on the signal reconstruction and FTC scheme for civil aircraft. The proposed NDO-TSCKF is better than the current reconstruction filter because the failed sensor signal can be reconstructed under disturbances. This control scheme has a better fault-tolerant capability for sensor faults and bounded disturbances than using regular NDI control.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Philippe Gilotte, Iraj Mortazavi, Alfonso Colon de Carvajal, Stephie Edwige and Christian Navid Nayeri

The purpose of this paper is to study pressure measurement correlations, as the location of the pressure sensors should enable to capture variation of the drag force…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study pressure measurement correlations, as the location of the pressure sensors should enable to capture variation of the drag force depending on the yaw angle and some geometrical modifications.

Design/methodology/approach

The present aerodynamical study, performed on a reduced scale mock-up representing a sport utility vehicle, involves both numerical and experimental investigations. Experiments performed in a wind tunnel facility deal with drag and pressure measurements related to the side wind variation. The pressure sensor locations are deduced from wall streamlines computed from large eddy simulation results on the external surfaces of the mock-up.

Findings

After validation of the drag coefficient (Cd) values computed with an aerodynamic balance, measurements should only imply pressure tap mounted on the vehicle to perform real driving emission (RDE) tests.

Originality/value

Relation presented in this paper between pressure coefficients measured on a side sensor and the drag coefficient data must enable to better quantify the drag force contribution of a ground vehicle in RDE tests.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Chen Mei

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses the static and dynamic performance test of capacitance vehicle weighing sensor with emphasis, and provides theoretical analysis, in order to provide the tests and theoretical basis for the popularization and application of the vehicle weighing device.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper gives an introduction to the weighing sensor in respects of the structure design and measuring principles, with the emphasis on the static and dynamic performance of the testing processes. Then, the paper provides the corresponding testing processes and data with theoretical analysis.

Findings

This weighing sensor can be applied to static as well as dynamic tests thus the capacitance vehicle weighing device is practical and worthy of promotion and popularization.

Originality/value

The capacitance vehicle weighing device is characterized by its simple structure, simple measuring circuits, strong reliability in anti‐interference, small size and low cost. The static performance is of little repetitive error, and the use of software may efficiently solve the problems of non‐linearity and hysteresis. In dynamic measurement, the speed, acceleration and vibration of the vehicle produce little effect on the result, which can be neglected, thus being able to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional weighing method which is of low speed and great errors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

D Hodgins

Outlines the development of an electronic nose for general applicationand examines it’s three major parts: a sensor array, a means of converting the sensor outputs into…

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Abstract

Outlines the development of an electronic nose for general application and examines it’s three major parts: a sensor array, a means of converting the sensor outputs into suitable signals for analysis, and a software analysis tool. Describes the sensor array, electronics and overall system design, the conducting polymer sensors and the computer hardware and software. Discusses the analysis techniques and results of tests carried out on various gases, vapours and liquids. Concludes that although much further work is required into sensors and analysis techniques it is anticipated that a growing number of companies will become interested in developing these systems.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Yalei Liu, Xiaohui Gu, Yunmeng Lian and Heng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the theoretical relationship between the layout of four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking system and systematic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the theoretical relationship between the layout of four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking system and systematic observation accuracy, and provide an algorithm to determine the optimal arrangement of four‐sensor acoustic array and an indicator to evaluate acoustic array system measurement accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present paper, the measurement principle of the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking system is analyzed, and the system observation model and the conversion relationship between models are established. Subsequently, the optimization algorithm for the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array is deduced, the theoretical optimal arrangement of the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking measurement system is obtained based on the optimal position dilution of precision function (PDOPF) of 2D target, and the static experimental study on sound‐source bearing estimation is designed. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental results of the present study.

Findings

The measurement accuracy of the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking system is largely dependent on the layout of the acoustic sensor. Theoretical studies and experimental results demonstrated that an optimal PDPOF can be used to analyze the rationality of the layout. It can also serve as an indicator for the layout of the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array tracking system.

Originality/value

The PDOPF value is presented as an indicator for the evaluation of the four‐sensor dynamic acoustic array systematic observation accuracy based on theoretical analysis. The feasibility of the indicator and the rationality of the sensor layout in practical engineering application are verified through experimental studies on sound‐source bearing estimation. The higher the PDOPF value is, the lower the accuracy of the system will be.

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