Advances in Pacific Basin Business Economics and Finance: Volume 5
Table of contents(12 chapters)
Traditionally, individual states have shared responsibility for regulating the US insurance industry. The Dodd–Frank Act changes this by tasking the Federal Reserve with regulating the systemic risks that particularly large insurance organizations might pose and assigning the regulation of swap-based substitutes for insurance and reinsurance products to the SEC and CFTC. This paper argues that prudential regulation of large insurance firms and weaknesses in federal swaps regulation could reduce the effectiveness of state-based systems in protecting policyholders and taxpayers from nonperformance in the insurance industry. Swap-based substitutes for traditional insurance and reinsurance contracts offer protection sellers a way to transfer responsibility for guarding against nonperformance into potentially less-effective hands. The CFTC and SEC lack the focus, expertise, experience, and resources to adequately manage the ways that swap transactions can affect US taxpayers’ equity position in global safety nets, while regulators at the Fed refuse to recognize that conscientiously monitoring accounting capital at financial holding companies will not adequately protect taxpayers and policyholders until and unless it is accompanied by severe penalties for managers that willfully hide their firm’s exposure to destructive tail risks.
A Further Equity Premium Puzzle
Mehra and Prescott (1985) point out that it is difficult to reconcile certain empirical facts about equity and debt returns and the process of consumption growth with reasonable assumptions about the relative rate of risk aversion and the pure rate of time preference, in a conventional infinite-horizon model with an additively separable, constant relative rate of risk aversion (CRRA) utility function. The present note adds the further puzzle that if the mean rate of growth of consumption is not known with perfect certainty in such a model, both stocks and real perpetuities have an infinite price in terms of consumption goods. When maturity-specific claims on real output are introduced, the equity premium is seen to increase without bound at the most distant horizons. These in turn dominate asset pricing, so that the equity premium on claims on all future output is indeed infinite.
The main purpose of this paper is to identify the developments for bank credit allocation in Taiwan since 1994. Using a disequilibrium model, we evaluate whether there is a situation of excess demand, that is a credit crunch, or excess supply, that is a saving glut, during these periods. We find a considerable excess demand, or credit crunch, particularly during the Asian financial crisis. The main cause of this credit crunch can be attributed to the tightening in the money market because of capital outflow. On the contrary, the empirical result also shows that there were some periods experiencing an excess supply from 2001 to 2004, or a situation of saving glut as mentioned by Bernanke (2005). Furthermore, the saving glut was still prevailing during the periods of global financial crisis. This is probably due to the aggressive and pre-empt policy actions taken by the financial and monetary authorities to avoid a possible meltdown in the credit market.
This study presents evidence on the relations of stock market performance and industrial production growth for a group of 20 industrial markets. Evidence supports the notion that an increase in stock returns or a rise in the market value of stocks contributes positively to industrial production growth. Evidence suggests that stock market risk has a significantly negative effect on production growth for advanced markets. The Granger test finds a unidirectional causality running from stock returns or stock volatility to industrial growth. However, the United States shows a bilateral causality between stock volatility and industrial production growth.
This study develops a multi-period structural model to value bank subordinated debt (subdebt) under different regulatory policies. The model provides a complete framework for analyzing how various factors, such as credit and interest rate risks, bank characteristics, and regulatory policies, affect subdebt prices and yield spreads. It finds that the implementation of Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) will raise subdebt prices and lower subdebt spreads, while capital forbearance will have the opposite effects. Also, subdebt spreads are less sensitive to bank risk when PCA is imposed than when capital forbearance occurs. The results of the paper suggest that enhancing market discipline through giving subdebt investors more rights to force timely reorganization of weak banks will reduce the subdebt spreads required by investors.
We analyze the economic consequence of government intervention on the incidence of accounting fraud and audit fees of both Big 4 and local big auditors on Chinese audit market in the period 2006–2013. In 2009, Chinese government issued favorable polices to local big auditors and required certain Chinese companies to give priority to these auditors. We find that market share of Big 4 auditors is quite stable before and after government intervention, but market share of local big auditors increases at the cost of local small auditors after intervention. Although audit fee premiums of both local big and Big 4 auditors have increased after intervention, the positive effect of local big auditors on audit fee premiums has significantly decreased. Further, both Big 4 and local big auditors are not likely to reduce the incidence of accounting fraud in pre- and post-intervention period. Our results suggest that Chinese government support to local auditors does not significantly enhance these auditors’ competitiveness in terms of audit fee and audit quality.
This study empirically investigates the difference in employment status between marriage immigrants and native women in Taiwan based on a combined dataset from the 2003 Survey of Foreign and Mainland Spouses’ Life Status and 2003 Women’s Marriage, Fertility and Employment Survey. The conceptual framework is based on the family labor supply model, the human and social capital theories, and the immigrant assimilation theory. From the Probit model of the employment probability, our findings indicate that family background variables, including the presence of small children and husbands’ characteristics, play fairly significant roles in determining the employment probability of marriage immigrants. As for native women, human capital variables such as schooling and age are the most significant factors affecting their employment probability, while husbands’ characteristics play a less important role in this respect. The finding that the employment probability of foreign spouses rises rapidly with the number of years that have elapsed since migration may confirm the employment assimilation for marriage immigrants. This study further applies the nonlinear decomposition analysis developed in the work of Yun (2004) to examine the gap in employment probability between native women and foreign spouses in Taiwan. Our findings show that the employment probability differentials are mostly due to the difference in coefficients and that the effects of the two age variables play dominant roles. The difference in coefficients, in sum, contributes to increasing the gap of employment probability, while the difference in characteristics, in sum, tends to reduce the employment probability differentials.
This paper examines the impact of residents’ human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap, using China’s provincial panel data from 1997 to 2013. The results show that, at the national level as well as at the regional level, residents’ overall human capital investment inequality has a positive significant impact on the urban–rural income gap. In addition, the impact of overall human capital investment inequality increased monotonically from the eastern region inward to the western region. In terms of the relative impact of each component of human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap, migration investment inequality appears to have the greatest impact at the national level, whereas health investment inequality has the greatest impact on the urban–rural income gap in the eastern region, and education investment inequality exhibits the greatest impact in the central and western regions. We also investigate the impact of human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap over different periods. The results show that residents’ overall human capital investment inequality had a positive impact on the urban–rural income gap in the period 1997–2008, but the impact rapidly shrunk in 2009–2013. Furthermore, the impact of residents’ health investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap shows a downward trend, and the impact of residents’ education investment inequality trended slightly upward from 1997 to 2008, and then rapidly shrunk in 2009–2013. Finally, the impact of residents’ migration investment inequality was only significant in 1997–2002.
This study focuses primarily on the business operating departments (hereinafter, DMUs) of a case telecom company (hereinafter, the Company) in the northern and eastern areas of Taiwan. In 2007, the Company finished the first stage of its reorganization by consolidating 14 DMUs into 12. In 2011, the Company completed the second stage of its reorganization by consolidating the 12 remaining DMUs into 8. This study intends to explore the effects of each stage of the Company’s reorganization on the efficiency and ranking of the various DMUs. The results show that the DMUs became more efficient after each stage of the Company’s reorganization. Moreover, the efficiency and ranking of the new DMUs, A6, A7, and B7 increased post-consolidation. This suggests that both the first and second stages of the reorganization were necessary. The findings of this study could help the Company and other telecom companies to design strategies for the future consolidation of other units, and thereby maintain their competitiveness and continued growth.
By employing the GMM and SVAR models in this paper, the effects that bond prices, equity prices, gold prices, and domestic credit have on housing prices were analyzed, using data from 2002q4 to 2015q1 for the ASEAN + 2 countries. The GMM results indicated the significant effects of equity prices and gold prices on housing prices and insignificant effects of bond prices and demotic credit on housing prices in selected Asian countries. Furthermore, findings show that worldwide economic crisis has negative impacts on housing prices in Asian countries. Moreover, Impulse response results indicated that housing prices respond simultaneously and positively to equity prices in all countries except Malaysia and Singapore. Likewise, Variance deposition findings demonstrate the importance of gold prices in fluctuation of housing prices in Malaysia and China especially in the long term.
- Publication date
- Book series
- Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
- Series copyright holder
- Emerald Publishing Limited
- Book series ISSN