Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study: Volume 5

Cover of Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study
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(25 chapters)
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Abstract

There is no clear understanding on the terms and concepts of development, both in the academic literature of tourism and in general. What constitutes “growth”, and what is “development”? The emphasis on mathematical modeling has favored the use of simplifying hypothesis, with dubious practical results for the real problems of development. This chapter discusses the most relevant aspects of theories of development, enunciated at different times in the course of the last two centuries, with the purpose of illuminating different theoretical approaches to analysis and policy formulation that may support actual strategy and practice in tourism.

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Abstract

Previously disregarded factors are now included in development theory and practice. A narrow understanding of capital has had profound effects on development as well as on tourism policy and governance. In this framework, purpose-designed tourism for development has been the exception. Contemporary ideas of other forms of capital playing a key role in a broader concept of development are examined, specifically the central function of human and social-institutional capital. Human capital is seen in the light of capabilities, attributes, and knowledge possessed by individuals. Social-institutional capital may empower individuals as it refers to the value of trust and cooperation deriving from formal and informal sets of behavioral rules. This chapter clarifies the foundations of tourism as an instrument for development if tourism policy and governance are designed and implemented within an adequate framework.

Abstract

Destination management is in urgent need of analytical and policy tools, and even more so in the context of tourism for development programs. Understanding both structural elements and dynamic processes are essential. This chapter describes a model of destinations which considers three types of structural components: factors/resources, attractors (of tourism demand), and support systems. It analyzes as well the optimizing behavior of destination stakeholders, both endogenous and exogenous, as a way to understand destination dynamics. The model can be applied in the strategic positioning of destinations as well as in achieving competitiveness and sustainability—ultimately contributing to development—through tourism policy plans and governance processes. The model was born in the context of a European Eureka–ComTur research project, and has been tested in a variety of destinations.

Abstract

In parallel to the rising popularity of the sustainability paradigm, the idea that tourism may contribute to development and poverty alleviation has also received increased acceptance. The literature questions whether sustainability could act as a barrier to development or whether conservation and development are two different goals that should be implemented in unison. This chapter maintains the second view and discusses the ways in which sustainability and development support each other by drawing from both streams of research. A sustainability viewpoint can address some of the challenges that the use of tourism for development faces.

Abstract

This chapter proposes a methodology to determine tourism policies that are effective in addressing the challenges of tourism as an instrument for development. A three-step process is proposed, including the preparation of a Green Paper that defines the different actors in the tourism system, as well as their functions vis-à-vis policy options; a White Paper that determines strategic positioning and a roadmap for action based on the diagnosis and analysis of the destination; and a Tourism Policy Plan that delineates the different governance actions. The model is examined from the perspective of the use of tourism as an instrument for development, with a consideration of the destination’s human, social capital, and participative governance systems.

Abstract

Regional development agencies (RDAs) have recently been established in Turkey as a policy vehicle to support local governments and coordinate stakeholders’ activities. In compliance with the European Union policy guidelines, regional-level planning and policymaking are introduced for the first time in Turkey. Within the new system, tourism is designated as one of the critical development tools and thus the RDAs have become actively involved in tourism planning and development. The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the role of these organizations in the enhancement of tourism in less developed areas, examining the case of Thrace and North Anatolia regions in Turkey, and the activities of these respective agencies.

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Abstract

With many great attractions, both natural and cultural, Vietnam has all the trappings of popular destinations. Over the last few years, it has developed them to a qualified success. This chapter analyzes Vietnam’s performance. In tourism development and overall, it remains lackluster because of excessive bureaucratic governance that thwarts healthy development. National authorities and specialized agencies exert massive control and stand on the way of successful economic performance. The legal framework for tourism development is a paragon of intrusive intervention in many areas that would perform better if left to the market.

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Abstract

Singapore has seen success as an international destination with a steady rise in arrivals since the city-state became an independent republic in 1965. Tourism development is part of a broader program of economic and physical centralized planning which has transformed the island. The government has been very active and its pro-tourism policies have created an infrastructure and supply of attractions which render the country a center for leisure and business tourism. One element of the strategy has been constant upgrading and investment aimed at revitalization and sometimes reinvention. However, the authorities are facing unprecedented challenges due to general development pressures. Changing circumstances will demand a reappraisal of tourism policies and underlying assumptions.

Abstract

Tourism and events have been identified as providing opportunities to revitalize regional and remote economies. In Australia such areas have limited economic opportunities and are constrained by a range of development barriers, including access to markets and human capital. Importantly, tourism in particular is seen as an economic activity that provides scope for Indigenous communities and individuals in regional and remote parts of the country to leverage development opportunities. A number of the island communities of the Torres Strait, the most northern region in Australia, are exploring the potential of tourism and events as an economic development strategy, yet the region is severely constrained by a number of development barriers.

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the Pueblos Mágicos (Magic Towns) Program to determine the social and economic benefits of a public tourism intervention with governance characteristics in small towns with cultural and natural resources. The chapter examines the evolution of social development through indicators that measures the lack of this development, and also analyzes information collected from the residents about their perceptions. At first glance, there are elements to affirm with the insights from final beneficiaries, that the governance action really improves their living conditions.

Abstract

This chapter aims to develop a broad understanding of the relationship between tourism and development in Colombia for the period 1996–2012 through two complementary analyses. After a review of secondary sources, high-impact public policies related to tourism are analyzed, as well as the gains and gaps to be overcome. The main findings points out that Colombia is at a juncture where tourism is starting to bloom. Whatever is planned and how it is done in terms of public policy will determine the future model for its development. As such, tourism can become a strategic instrument for decentralization processes, regional and local dynamics, and strengthening the rule of law.

Abstract

Tourism policies focusing on economic growth in Argentina, at both regional and national levels, were established at the start of the 21st century. In most cases, typically such policies resulted more in wishful thinking for a growth in tourism than in concrete outcomes involving the local population and improving their quality of life. However, an interesting case study is the development plan drawn up by the Province of Buenos Aires. In contrast to others, this project actually has been effective, by involving a wide spectrum of the southwest inhabitant of the province and hence turning tourism into an economic and social development tool.

Abstract

This chapter presents a global insight of the processes used in Lanzarote of Spain, a typical mass tourism destination which has combined growth with environmental protection and political commitment to sustainability. Tourism has been the key element of the development of the Canary Islands and helped in the construction of cultural identity and current social dynamics, as well as being the main source of direct and indirect economic resources. However, a detailed analysis reveals the paradox of tourism development and a progressive increase of the economic dependency of the industry, limited by the action of the local population who has seen improvements in their standard of living due to the implementation and development of tourism.

Abstract

The two Finnish tourism development cases presented in this chapter illustrate the importance of linking national tourism policies to regional destination development strategies and projects. However, balancing national policies, regional strategies, and tourism development structured in projects is demanding. This is especially evident in regions where tourism can be characterized as peripheral, small scale, and seasonal, as in the region of Ostrobothnia in Finland. This chapter elaborates on three strategic dimensions to accelerate regional tourism development and leverage the gap between tourism policies and practices. These are the foundation of regional tourism development teams, acknowledging the power of business hub structures, and to make policymakers into friends.

Abstract

Nearly two decades into South Africa’s democracy, this chapter describes the most recent policy and strategy initiatives to ensure sustainable development and to enhance the country’s tourism competitiveness. It discusses the key national tourism policies, plans, and strategies, which together provide the framework for tourism development and management in the country. The importance of balancing a “top-down” framework with “bottom-up” local engagement is emphasized as a cornerstone of South Africa’s future tourism journey. In line with the philosophy that “structure should follow strategy”, the institutional framework to manage tourism during the next planning period is outlined. The discussion concludes with the critical success factors to enhance South Africa’s future sustainable tourism competitiveness.

Abstract

This chapter traces the Egyptian tourism policies since the 1980s and showcases patterns of successes and pitfalls of plans instrumented by such policies. It also debates the extent to which Egyptian tourism policies and strategies have been able to cope with the shifting international trends and comprehend the most recent models of development with all its economic, technological, and environmental dimensions. The discussion illustrates different plans/tools employed to achieve broad goals and discusses influences of their implementation. This sheds light on the current uncertain political situation and problems posed by such unstable circumstances.

About the Authors

Pages 329-334
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References

Pages 335-388
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Index

Pages 389-406
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Cover of Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study
DOI
10.1108/S2042-144320145
Publication date
2014-07-26
Book series
Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-0-85724-679-0
eISBN
978-0-85724-680-6
Book series ISSN
2042-1443