Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding: Volume 16

Cover of Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding

Table of contents

(24 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xv
Access restricted

Introduction

Pages 1-12
Abstract

This introduction to the volume Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding (Emerald) positions the atmospheric turn in the context of recent paradigmatic turns such as the linguistic turn, iconic turn, cultural turn, spatial turn, mobility turn and design turn. The specific contribution of the atmospheric turn is its profoundly holistic interest in overarching connections which are perceived with all senses and include both matter and idea. With its 22 chapters, this volume sets out to sharpen the atmospheric gaze and perception in research and beyond.

Access restricted

Part 1: Atmosphere and Culture

Abstract

The atmospheric turn can be understood as a departure from the occidental dominant thing and event ontologies and opens the way to a situation ontology, in which subjective-bodily felt being-in is at the centre. The focus shifts from objective things or events to subjectively experienceable facts of being within situations and atmospheres. Atmospheres have an affective content, a peculiar non-dimensional spatiality and a hybrid status beyond the typical occidental dualisms, such as subject and object or inner and outer world. If the philosophical potential of the atmospheric turn is highlighted and taken seriously, then fundamental new perspectives in thought and action can reveal themselves.

Access restricted
Abstract

First, this chapter traces how the concept of atmosphere has evolved in the fields of theology, philosophy, geography, sociology, psychology and architecture. Then it analyses the question of how to describe atmospheres and how to deepen the perception of atmospheres through market research. Finally, the chapter discusses the possibilities and limits of naming and typologising atmospheres.

Access restricted
Abstract

This chapter proposes a place atmosphere model, which can be used for all types of space, from the landscape to the municipality to the property. In addition to the emotional aspects, this atmosphere model also describes the socio-cultural, economic and ecologic dimensions that can shape an atmosphere. It is modelled in such a way to permit connecting to the theory and practice of brand and destination management in particular and to the model and process ideas of the planning, design and construction industries.

Access restricted
Abstract

The entirety of a region’s architectural expressions, that is, its building culture, has a strong impact on a region’s atmosphere. Being a collective and networked endeavour, building culture is difficult to coordinate. Against this background, this chapter presents an empirically informed reflection on architectural governance. The chapter is based on a multiple case study which compares five regions in the European Alps in terms of their coordination mechanisms in the areas of architecture and spatial planning, that is, architectural governance. The analysed regions include Grisons (Switzerland), Vorarlberg, Tyrol (both Austria), South Tyrol and Trentino (both in Italy). By combining conceptual considerations with empirical evidence, the chapter concludes with hypothesised relationships between architectural governance, building culture, socio-economic development dynamics and tourism.

Access restricted
Abstract

In these times of globalisation, distances are getting smaller, enhancing the interactions between people of different cultural backgrounds. This is especially true in the area of tourism, a field that is shaped by manifold communication activities. The enormous increases in the numbers of Chinese tourists visiting Europe and other Western destinations require building up intercultural competencies to minimise conflicts and promote mutual understanding. It is therefore necessary to question one’s own cultural view, which is why the debate surrounding de-Westernisation is of crucial importance. The metaphor of the atmosphere – in Chinese qifen – offers a helpful access point to strengthen mutual understanding, because it creates a bridge between eastern and western thinking. Paul Watzlawick (1967) developed his well-known five axioms of communication, the second of which states that every communication has both content and a relational aspect, and the latter classifies the former. This chapter shows why the atmospheric dimension of communication should be established as the third axiom in order to understand communication holistically.

Access restricted
Abstract

Comparing two different descriptions of the atmosphere of one and the same city allows for interesting insights regarding the production, duration and perception of urban atmospheres. Aspects of time are very important in this context as they form typical atmospheres here and always, ensure that the patina of the city and the people is based on experience, and generate expectations prior to actually felt-bodily perceptions by means of narration. Changes in environmental qualities or modes of perception can provide clues to both typologies of places and the people present. Moreover, this chapter introduces the Atmospheric Portfolio, which illustrates how research on personal atmospheric perception as well as site-specific atmospheres of a location becomes possible. In the sense of further heuristic starting points, methods employed by other research projects will supplement the study.

Access restricted
Abstract

This contribution deals with the effects of atmospheres. It considers the interest in atmospheres as part of a fundamental change in the mode of individual reasoning which is characterised in contemporary post-industrial societies by an ‘experience orientation’. Atmospheres, which highlight the fact that the subjective state of a person can change in relation to the sensory qualities of the environment, become an interesting concept within this development. The chapter starts from the observation that – in spite of the importance that atmospheres have for spaces of leisure and tourism – there is little research on atmospheres in leisure and tourism studies. It presents three dimensions of effects of atmospheres (emotions and affective tonalities, attention, gesture) that allow us to understand why and how atmospheres matter. The second part links the effects of atmospheres to leisure and tourism, where it proposes distinguishing the corporeal and the sociocultural dimensions of atmospheres. Finally, it discusses the possibilities of designing atmospheres and stresses the necessity for further empirical research.

Access restricted
Abstract

Brand theory and practice have remained quite two-dimensional to this day and focus on logos, corporate design, website design, etc. As with atmospheres, it was the sales room where the brand idea was spatialised early on. This chapter discusses how to spatialise brand theory and to connect it with the place atmosphere model. Moreover, the chapter works out how the bridge between the strategy of an organisation (company, hotel, destination, etc.), its brand personality and the strategy of spatial design can be built. The brand personality shows itself in the long-term handling of the eight W questions of the brand space strategy (Who, Where, Wherein, What, Whom, Way to, What for and Why).

Access restricted

Part 2: Atmosphere in Tourism, Hospitality and Events

Abstract

This chapter bridges theories of product development in tourism destinations with the analytical concept of genius loci (‘the spirit of a place’) used in writings on architecture and design. Assuming that spatial and symbolic uniqueness are critical ingredients to create attractive tourism experiences, the chapter proposes a schematic process for atmospheric interventions. Atmospheric interventions are presented as a technique which, first, understands the essential role of atmospheric contexts for tourism experiences; second, conceives transformations of atmospheres in a manner that take their complex nature into account; and third, sees value in respecting and enhancing the traditioned character of places and their atmospheres. Overall, this chapter suggests preference for a humble and careful approach of atmospheric interventions over decontextualised attempts to redesign atmospheres from scratch.

Access restricted
Abstract

Tourism research has been largely unconcerned with the aesthetic dimension, although few attempts have recently begun to surface. In this chapter, the authors highlight a multifaceted process of incorporating aesthetics in tourist experience design, based on a three-level framework for theming. The first level is based on aesthetic features of destinations as atmospherics. The second level deals with multisensory atmospherics, transcending the mere visual focus of the tourist gaze. Key experiences of the beautiful, sublime and picturesque are deeply embedded in visual, somatic, olfactory, auditory and gustatory decoding of aesthetic markers. The third level deals with the human factor in atmospherics, particularly focussing on the role of residents. Through a discursive lens, local people are simultaneously identified as sources, co-creators and beneficiaries of aesthetic environments. Thus, the chapter hopes to open possibilities for exploring experiences of atmospherics (including aesthetics) through a dialectic approach.

Access restricted
Abstract

In this chapter, emotional interactions between tourists and the individuals they are potentially in interaction with are examined within the scope of social aspects of tourism atmosphere. Emotional interactions were analysed under the framework of emotional contagion. Regardless of whether the fact that emotional contagion occurs in non-conscious or conscious way, tourists are open to emotional cues to come from other individuals. Emotions of other individuals can influence tourists’ behavioural intentions by shaping their emotions. This chapter suggests a number of propositions, and develops a conceptual model to capture the role of emotional interactions.

Access restricted
Abstract

For actors in a tourism destination, the atmospheric turn initially means looking at themselves in a more holistic and differentiated way. Through the analysis of strategic visitor flows, it is possible to identify subspaces with high frequency, which thus become identification spaces of a destination. Together with other identification fields, they shape the destination brand understood as spatial and atmospheric entity. This enables a different view of a destination, its structure and generates new opportunities for destination management, which wll be discussed in the form of an outlook. A destination manager, for example, could in the future collaborate with governmental bodies responsible for spatial planning and with private builders on spatial design projects and introduce the perspective of the destination as a branded space.

Access restricted
Abstract

Developing places bears several challenging questions such as: “How can strategic initiatives be identified? How can we purposefully link businesses, attractions, and living spaces? How must we shape the environment of a place so that it allows for the emergence of a ‘good atmosphere’?” The case of Altdorf (CH) presents how a community first identified current activities by reconstructing flows of visitors. By doing so, they assessed the quality of services and the overall feeling about the town. Imminent new projects such as the enlargement of the main train station with the development of a new business centre as well as the new traffic concept in the town centre have triggered a new design of the place. This implied involving actors at different stages and combining spatial configuration and trajectories, infrastructure, services and heritage in a meaningful way. The case of Altdorf presents a practical and straightforward way of making the complexity and dynamics of a place well understandable to every person involved.

Access restricted
Abstract

The development of tourism can be considered from a tourist and a local perspective. The tourism space functions both as a tourism destination and a living space for local residents. Methods of atmospheric design can contribute to consider the guest’s view which can bring dynamism into the development of places and locations. This is seen as an interesting option for the Bavarian small town of Eichstaett in Germany, whose challenges and opportunities in tourism development are the focus of this contribution. Small towns have the potential to achieve tourism visibility and to increase the quality of life of the local population through a stronger engagement with the atmospheric design of their space.

Access restricted
Abstract

This chapter explains the role and potential of colour and lighting as two important elements of the service atmosphere in tourism and hospitality service encounters. The chapter first explains the importance of colour and lighting in services from the perspective of customers’ sensory perceptions. Then, the chapter provides examples to demonstrate how psychological/neuro-marketing tools of Eye Tracker and Facial Recognition, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Heart Rate (HR) can be used to understand the role of colour and lighting in customer satisfaction in tourism and hospitality service encounters. Based on this perspective, the study offers recommendations to design service environments in terms of colour and lighting.

Access restricted
Abstract

Diving has become a popular tourism activity for professionals and novices. Coral reefs or other types of natural sources are still the most preferred diving sites. However, they are under threat for many reasons, for example, climate change, intensive human activities or commercial use. Many countries have promoted artificial reefs to protect coral reefs and create new attractions for tourists. These new underwater atmospheres have changed diving and diving experiences. Wrecks, vessels, monuments, hotels, sunken cities or other types of artificial reef forms invite divers to discover and explore the human-driven underwater environment with novelty seeking, photographic opportunities and mysterious surroundings. This atmospheric turn has brought many advantages to communities, stakeholders and nations with socio-economic benefits, advantages in sustainability management and destination image. This chapter examines the range of underwater atmospheres in different structures and countries and explores their potential benefits.

Access restricted
Abstract

Drawing on the confirmation–disconfirmation paradigm and the elaboration likelihood model, this study builds and tests a conceptual model that examines the effect of perceived authenticity on affective and behavioural outcomes as well as the moderating role of consumer involvement on the link between authenticity and satisfaction. The model was tested on data collected from 224 members of a theatre audience using structural equation modelling. Results indicate that perceived authenticity associated with both the core arts product and the venue enhances audience satisfaction which is a strong predictor of intention to recommend. Audience involvement with theatre moderates the link between authenticity of venue and satisfaction, with this association being stronger for low-involvement consumers.

Access restricted
Abstract

This chapter explores the potential of social media in the context of festivals and shows how web platforms can better inform event managers’ understanding of how a festival’s social atmosphere (i.e. the socialscape) can be extended online and beyond the actual periods of the staging of a festival. This is possible as social media can help to build an online environment that favours social identification and user engagement. To illustrate such a mechanism, the chapter presents a multi-method analysis of Fotografia Europea, a photography festival held in Reggio Emilia, Italy. Results show the potential of a coordinated web and social media strategy for enhancing the festival’s atmosphere in terms of social identification and engagement.

Access restricted
Abstract

This chapter focusses on travellers’ pursuit of silence. This quest may be a counteraction to the current invasion of noise in everyday life. Silence has become something rare, unique and exclusive – which conveys luxury in its pristine and simplest form. The study focussed on silence in the setting of a church, which is a place typically intrinsically attached to silence. A qualitative semi-structured study was designed to explore how churches’ atmospheres contribute to the experience of silence, as well as what such moments of silence mean to the contemporary traveller. Silence in a church is very much defined by the place itself. For the traveller, silence is (1) a code of conduct, (2) an inner state, (3) a break, (4) an empowering experience and (5) a precious moment. The findings of this study can be used to promote moments of silence for weary travellers in the need of quiet.

Access restricted
Abstract

Isolation, large distances and geophysical adversities have influenced common perceptions, and with this have reinforced Northern Australia’s (aka Capricornia’s) image as a difficult and unattractive environment. This representation of ‘otherness’ often is contradicted by the fascination of tourists during their temporary encounter with the ‘North’ and its atmosphere. They appreciate its natural beauty and culture, which in their imagination represents the ‘real’ Australia. Thus, the region’s atmosphere is constructed by aesthetic values defined through social and cultural sensemaking of the place. This chapter explores the atmosphere of northern regions of Australia by adopting a historical, geographical and imaginative perspective to better understand the perceptions that define and distinguish the region from the rest of Australia. Through an auto-ethnographic account of travelling along the Gibb River Road in Western Australia’s Kimberley region, the authors accentuate the atmospheric dichotomy and inbuilt contradictions of tourists’ contemporary quest for ‘otherness’.

Access restricted
Abstract

This study describes the impact of changes in e-atmospherics in internet advertisings on consumer clicks and purchases. The study describes two unobtrusive field experiments: testing the impact of a third-party endorsement message embed in email advertising on customer clicks and purchases and testing the impact of sweepstake-award embeds in email advertising on customers’ clicks and time using brand (Blikwayski) tourism information. The studies include multiple dependent variables ranging from clicks-to-open email, clicks-to-open offer, clicks-to-purchase room rental, number-of-nights stayed and total revenue generated for the treatment versus control groups. Behaviour responses were higher for all dependent measures per participants in the treatments versus control groups. This study supports Eskin’s (1975), Cialdini’s (2006) and List’s (2011) proposal that true-field experiments can provide substantive direct evidence on the impact of alternative marketing treatments on behaviour.

Access restricted

Index

Pages 333-339
Access restricted
Cover of Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
DOI
10.1108/S1871-3173201916
Publication date
2019-11-29
Book series
Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-83867-070-2
Book series ISSN
1871-3173