Tourism Sensemaking: Strategies to Give Meaning to Experience: Volume 5

Cover of Tourism Sensemaking: Strategies to Give Meaning to Experience

Table of contents

(16 chapters)

Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the impact of different cues-in-contexts affecting the implicit thinking and sensemaking of the observer (e.g., researcher) to the emic story being told in the visuals. The creation of Figs. 2 and 3 rests on a theoretical platform of Carl Jung's (2009) archetypal theory and method of decoding his own dreams. Jung's (2009) paintings of his dreams to enable conscious interpretation of his conversations within the collective unconscious inform a call for creating visual narrative art to inform meanings of personal and collective unconscious relating to stories consumers tell about buying and using brands.The collective unconscious contains the wisdom and experience of untold ages and thus represents an unparalleled guide for explaining the meaning of what is happening and what will happen. “Active imagination” and “self-experimentation” are terms Jung refers to in his use of paintings and sculpture to create dialogues between “directed thinking” (conscious thinking or what in the 21st century is referred to as “system 2 thinking”) and fantasy thinking (personal and collective unconscious, what is similar to “system 1 thinking,” see Evans, 2003). (Woodside, Megehee, & Sood, 2011).

Using netnography, this report analyzes travel blogs to show the take-away impressions of first-time visitors to three South American cities: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Santiago, Chile. Visitors recount their travel experiences according to the kernel myths of the respective city (Holt, 2003). The report includes concept maps using Heider's (1958) balance theory for each positive and negative blog to decode the visitor's relationship to a particular iconic myth. Furthermore, the study describes the role of storytelling (McKee, 2003) in marketing for destination brand experiences.

This chapter aims to demonstrate that different cultures influence tourist decision making. Multi-structural models are used to assess to what extend the cultural traits may influence decision-making styles of tourists. Cultural traits and decision-making styles were conceptualized as multidimensional constructs. The empirical study is supported through data from a sample of individuals visiting Lisbon during the New Year events. The analysis shows significant differences within the country of birth. Furthermore, the study concludes that the most important cultural dimensions in each of the countries lead to different decision-making styles. Although there are geographical and temporal limitations, the present study's findings suggest substantial effects of culture in tourist decision making, and these effects are heterogeneous along different countries. This chapter provides insights into how tourism destinations should position themselves in different cultural contexts. This study contributes to the overall understanding of culture as a driving influence in the way tourists decide to travel. Specifically, this chapter provides empirical evidence of how tourists' behavior varies according to the cultural heterogeneity of countries.

This chapter examines the phenomena of third places as institutions that provide social interaction outside of home and work. The study explores the different types of third places and the opportunities and challenges offered by each. This is a conceptual paper that examines different conceptualizations of third places using brand examples to highlight the ways in which organizations try to benefit from society's need for a neutral gathering place. The chapter highlights the growth of organizations seeking to benefit from the phenomena of third places and the opportunities for them to profit further. The chapter also highlights the potential for virtual third places to enhance opportunities for increasing brand awareness and sales of products and services at other third places. The chapter identifies ways in which hospitality organizations can capitalize on the public's need for third places. The study moves the discussion beyond the rather limited perspective Oldenburg presented and shows how the needs of a new generation may require more flexibility and excitement than other generations. The study also highlights the ways in which organizations use a combination of third places to their benefit. Third places create opportunities for social interaction and community building and benefit organizations once they position themselves to achieve the status of third places. This chapter compares different conceptualizations of third places and shows the similarities and differences between them. It shows how organizations may position themselves to appeal to different generations seeking a third place.

The ability travelers have to learn about the destination, explore and visualize activities and events, and book accommodations through the destinations' websites likely affects tourism visit behavior. Information availability, utility, and value of information on websites are the essential factors in the process of planning a vacation. This study compares the websites of America's three largest tourist destination states: California (, Florida (, and New York ( The study compares the three destination websites' quality, quantity, and utility through an evaluation rubric comprised of 22 attributes. One hypothesis that the study examines is that destination websites are assessable in order of good, better, best. The findings indicate that California provides the most useful and valuable information and is easiest to use. The assessment of as the best website is the result of applying attribute rubrics covering hotel booking, events calendars, maps, and ability to create a trip.

In “the century of culture,” a current drift is toward utilizing cultural heritage branding. Cultural heritage brand referred to in this study means a brand with value proposition based on cultural heritage. As Asian cultures are gathering global focus amid ongoing trend of exoticism and the growth of Asian economies, there is more opportunity especially for Asian brands to benefit from cultural heritage branding. Also, the advantages of cultural heritage branding can benefit fashion brands, considering that designs of great importance in fashion brand's competitiveness can earn creativity and originality from cultural heritage.

Therefore, this study (1) profiles cultural heritage fashion brands based on Asia: Japan, China, and Korea, (2) identifies components of cultural heritage fashion branding by comparative analysis, and (3) identifies characteristics in brand management strategy from the brands, and offer managerial implications for upcoming cultural heritage fashion brands.

This study adopts a case study approach that focuses on Asian fashion brands; Issey Miyake (Japan), Shanghai Tang (China), and Damyeon designed by Lee Hye Soon (Korea). The analytical contents of this research include general profiles (i.e., brand history, brand philosophy and concept, and BI and visual representation), cultural heritage perspectives and brand management perspective (i.e., product, price, place, promotion, and brand extension). Most of the information was retrieved from multiple sources including books, academic papers, brand's annual report, brand official website, news articles, etc.

Overall, this study shows cultural heritage fashion branding can be useful in distinctiveness in positioning and delivering brand value in depth, authenticity, and credibility for customers (Urde, 2007). The findings suggest some managerial as well as cultural heritage-related indications for upcoming cultural heritage fashion brands.

Although common components of cultural heritage fashion branding (i.e., utilization of traditional prototype, emphasis on traditional fabric, and preservation of traditional craftsmanship) were drawn out, achieving optimal balance between tradition and modernity was found critical as well. Managerial guidelines include foreign brand naming, premium pricing, art-related promotions, and extension for a total lifestyle brand. In further research, the type of industry and different country-of-origins can be applied in order to extensively study about the issue of cultural heritage branding.

The study here probes how tourists interpret their unique experiences while traveling in Macau, Las Vegas, and Monaco – well-known “Gambling Meccas.” The study applies one form of brand netnography to collect and analyze information about traveling experience in these three cities. One positive travel blog and one negative are selected and discussed each for Macau, Las Vegas, and Monaco. The study examines the validity of balance theory – a motivational theory of attitude change (Heider, 1958). Balance theory conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance (Hokky, S., & Deni, K. (2004). Social balance theory: Revisiting Heider's balance theory for many agents. Departmental Technical Report (Unpublished). The study probes how iconic symbols of brands influence visitors' experience. The findings inform marketing strategic suggestions for Macau, Las Vegas, and Monaco on how to build an effective destination brand and how to improve visitors' traveling experience.

Importance-performance analysis (IPA) remains one of the lesser used quantitative techniques to analyze cultural differences in image perceptions. Therefore, this chapter analyzes differences in international visitors' image perceptions for the island of Mauritius in its key generating markets. Using the mixed method, the study identifies image attributes in a qualitative phase initially, followed by the administration of a survey instrument to a quota sample of 1,000 visitors, resulting in 705 useable questionnaires. IPA reveals the existence of significant differences between importance and performance scores on image for the whole sample as well as significant differences by nationality sub-groups. For example, Germans on average have the lowest importance scores, whereas Indians have the highest in comparison with other nationalities. For each market, the study also identifies the influence of fluency levels in main languages spoken on importance and performance scores. Using IPA, the gaps in scores reflect degrees of product customization and re-positioning that is needed for the different markets of Mauritius. Similarities in scores across nationalities suggest the universal importance of some image attributes in destination selection. The chapter contributes to the dearth of literature on cultural differences in image perceptions for island destinations.

This chapter discusses the emerging network science approach to the study of complex adaptive systems and applies tools derived from statistical physics to the analysis of tourism destinations. The authors provide a brief history of network science and the characteristics of a network as well as different models such as small world and scale free networks, and dynamic properties such as resilience and information diffusion. The Italian resort island of Elba is used as a case study allowing comparison of the communication network of tourist organizations and the virtual network formed by the websites of these organizations. The study compares the parameters of these networks to networks from the literature and to randomly created networks. The analyses include computer simulations to assess the dynamic properties of these networks. The results indicate that the Elba tourism network has a low degree of collaboration between members. These findings provide a quantitative measure of network performance. In general, the application of network science to the study of social systems offers opportunities for better management of tourism destinations and complex social systems.

Drama enactments by trainees (DETs) include verbal and contextual exchanges by two or more trainees in customer–server dramas usually in the presence of trainee observers and trainers. DETs' objectives include nurturing the conscious, decoding unconscious thinking and action, and informing learning of customer–server exchanges. Training in DETs provides an opportunity to practice which increases knowledge and skills necessary for performing customer–server exchanges accurately and achieving high customer satisfaction. This chapter is a case study report on an in-class drama enactment of a hotel guest and receptionist face-to-face encounter. The enactment includes face-to-face conversations between two actors and within selves.

Cover of Tourism Sensemaking: Strategies to Give Meaning to Experience
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Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
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Emerald Publishing Limited
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