A Focused Issue on Building New Competences in Dynamic Environments: Volume 7

Subject:

Table of contents

(16 chapters)
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Purpose

This paper explores the transformation of international business models in the context of international ICT businesses where cloud computing has triggered a major paradigm change in the way software and hardware related services are offered to international customers.

Methodology/approach

Through comparative analysis of two cases, this paper examines the business model transformation processes in the cloud computing context.

Findings

The key challenges of the case companies were related to business model transformation as cloud computing was triggering a change in most of the business model elements.

Research implications

There is a need to define the concept of business model in a way that suits the cloud and internationalization.

Purpose

In this paper we present a systemic approach to modeling coopetition between firms that provides a methodology for analyzing the strategic incentives for organizations to engage in coopetition relationships (the why) and the organization design required to address the complexities inherent in such multifaceted relationships (the how).

Methodology/approach

We pursue a model-based approach that incorporates important conceptualizations adapted from competence-based management (CBM) theory and value network approach. We illustrate the applicability of our approach by applying it to the case of coopetition between IBM and Apple in the development of PowerPC CPU.

Findings

We show how modeling can contribute to our understanding of the strategic incentives for the organizations to develop a coopetitive relationship (“the why” of coopetition) and the organization design required for accommodating and addressing the complexities and dynamics of such a multifaceted relationship (“the how” of coopetition).

Research implications

First, our findings echo some of the perspectives developed in coopetition literature. Second, the study has utilized value network-level analysis in examining coopetition.

Practical implications

The modeling framework reported in this paper can help management practitioners in structuring choice situations involving coopetition, both in terms of the incentives to engage in a coopetitive setting and the design of a value network that can accommodate the complexities inherent in such multifaceted relations.

Purpose

This paper proposes a competence that enables the pivot organization to dynamically combine (assemble/disassemble, activate/deactivate) resources as needed, and introduces the concept of “dynamic assembly” that integrates this new competence into the historic pivot’s capacities.

Methodology/approach

Two in-depth case studies performed in two different contexts support our theoretical construct and exhibit the strategic role of the pivot-assembler in the conception, combination, coordination, and control of temporary chains and networks.

Findings

The results of our research confirm that dynamic assembly is an important characteristic of both, the travel industry and humanitarian relief, in which the four dimensions (conception, combination, coordination, and control) were found.

Research implications

From this research it is possible to consider that the theoretical construct of dynamic assembly is meaningful in these types of contexts where chains are temporarily assembled from a dynamic network. Complementary research should look at the characteristics of the organizational structure and the management of competences in loosely-coupled organizations (Weick, 1982) and hastily formed networks (Denning, 2006).

Purpose

In this paper we develop an integrated model identifying the key factors involved in managing exploratory innovation processes while also maintaining current business models and processes.

Methodology/approach

We first characterize the problem of innovation as consisting of “the four central problems” organizations face when trying to manage innovation processes (Van de Ven, 1986). We develop an enhanced version of O’Connor’s (2008) Discovery, Incubation and Acceleration (DIA) model by integrating elements of Sanchez’ (2012) theory of architectural isomorphism as well as Markides’ (2008) framework for strategically assessing the benefits of segregation versus integration of innovation processes. We develop and apply our model working with managers in two company contexts to assure the ability of our Integrated Model to identify key organizational and strategic variables that need to be recognized and managed in order to sustain successful exploratory innovation processes.

Findings

Reviews of our “Enhanced Integrated Model” with managers in the two companies suggest that our model would help them to recognize and manage key issues that were not addressed adequately in their prior efforts at exploratory innovation.

Research implications and practical implications

Our model building process provides a basic template for other research focused on developing normative management models through case-based research. The specific elements included in our Enhanced Integrated Models should provide managers with a useful model for managing exploratory innovation processes.

Purpose

This article examines the effect of the customer focus (CF) group of competencies, which includes communication and negotiation skills, on project performance as measured by reaching the internal and the overall budget, the quality, and the deadline goals.

Methodology/approach

The multiple regression model was based on a dataset from Trimo, an engineering and production company of prefabricated buildings.

Findings

The inverted U-shaped relationship of the CF group has been proven to exist with all project goals.

Research implications

The present study provides a starting-point for further empirical research on the international construction sector, projects, teams, and competence research.

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a mid-range theory of how change recipient sensemaking processes affect the realization of strategic flexibility during simultaneous change in professional service firms.

Methodology/approach

The research presented is based on an exploratory embedded case study adopting a qualitative interpretive methodology, conducted at a professional service organization. A sensemaking lens was adopted in order to study organizational change processes. Data was collected through semi-structured open-ended in-depth interviews, and analyzed using first and second order analysis, inspired by the methodology used by Corley and Gioia (2004).

Findings

We identified four determinants of change recipient sensemaking: professional identification, dominant organizational discourse, equivocality of expectations, and cross-understanding between thought worlds. Case findings indicate that cognitive and affective dimensions of change recipient sensemaking are strongly interwoven in their effect on realizing strategic flexibility.

Research implications

We contribute to the competence-based strategic management literature by introducing the concept of change recipient sensemaking in understanding the realization of strategic flexibility; by identifying four major determinants in a context of simultaneous change in a professional service organization; and by highlighting the interwoven and mutually reinforcing cognitive and affective dimensions of professional’s process of constructing meaning.

Purpose

We outline the standards for “good” performance measures and propose the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a method for performance measurement on individual level.

Methodology/approach

Using the example of a German cooperative bank with a cohort of 40 employees, we apply a multi-stage DEA approach to measure employee performance and report on the results. Based on those results a DEA-based approach for a strategic performance appraisal process is introduced.

Findings

We illustrate that DEA provides clear feedback information on an individual level, which enables management to accurately identify fields of specific improvement.

Research implications

The proposed approach for a strategic performance appraisal process is yet of theoretical nature. Consequently, the practical implementation of this approach is a purpose of further research.

Purpose

The main point of these analyses is to find out the skills and capabilities engineers should have in order to act successfully in the field of innovation.

Methodology/approach

The main approach is the identification of the profiles which are expected by the enterprises and companies from their engineers. The actual literature and scientific studies are screened in order to identify evidences for the characteristics of innovative engineers.

Findings

This study shows that professional, methodological, social, and personal competencies are important factors for innovation engineers in order to be successful in their professional life.

Practical implications

The final result of this analysis can be used as a guideline for universities and institutes of higher education to enrich their study courses in engineering with important elements of innovation engineering in order to fill the gap between the requested profiles of innovation engineers companies need and the profiles of university graduates.

Purpose

The paper applies the concept of dynamic capabilities to the field of high reliability organizations and particularly to EU Taranis 2013, an international civil protection exercise.

Methodology/approach

The paper draws on the multi-level model by Wilkens et al. (Wilkens & Gröschke, 2007; Wilkens, Keller, & Schmette, 2006). In this model dynamic capabilities are based on four dimensions of competence at individual, team, and organizational level. In a survey-based analysis, the paper identifies the four dimensions of competence at the individual and team level in high reliability organizations at civil protection exercises.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that Wilkens et al.’s model of four dimensions of competence for analyzing dynamic capabilities can be well transferred to the field of high reliability organizations.

Research implications

Transferring the competence model of dynamic capabilities to high reliability organizations has created a new field of research. The survey conducted on top executive level symbolizes a pre-test for further empirical studies in high reliability organizations including members on all organizational levels. Further research may also explore particularities of the participating teams and their frames of reference in international civil protection exercises – partly networks, partly bureaucratic systems, etc.

Practical implications

The concept of dynamic capabilities is highly relevant for civil protection, particularly in terms of cross-situational competences. Competences at team level are of crucial importance, because the handling of emergency cases is largely based on the cooperation of teams stemming from different rescue organizations.

Purpose

This paper proposes to rethink the concepts of relevance and usefulness and their relation to the theory–practice gap in management research.

Methodology/approach

On the basis of the cognitive-linguistic relevance theory or inferential pragmatics, supplemented by insights from information science, we define relevance as a general conceptual category, while reserving usefulness for the instrumental application in a particular case.

Findings

There is no reason to hold onto the difference between theoretical and practical relevance, nor to distinguish between instrumental and conceptual relevance.

Originality/value

This novel approach will help to clarify the confusion in the field and contribute to a better understanding of the added value of management research.

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to advance applied theoretical knowledge on international business (IB) ideation by designing the managing of such ideation as three recursive, multi-competence-enabled systems.

Methodology/approach

The core principles of Beer’s (1985) Viable System Model are adopted for this system design task. The Viable System Model consists of five interacting sub-systems that can support a viable IB unit.

Findings

The contribution of this design of the three recursive, multi-competence-enabled systems will be three novel pieces of the applied theoretical knowledge about recursivity and competences that advance the management of an IB unit as a whole and in particular that of IB ideation.

Research implications

For future research, I initially propose that the IB ideation (unit) is being managed the more successfully within its focal contexts, the more extensively the IB ideation is designed as a set of three recursive systems enabled by respective multi-competences. Moreover, the 3-system design may serve as the frame of reference for those compatible theorization initiatives vis-à-vis viable IB ideation management that interested competence-based management scholars will conduct in the future.

Practical implications

I put forth the three templates (coupled with Functions 2–3) to facilitate the enhancement of the IB ideation practices among leading, innovative firms and especially by the pioneering management of IB (ideation) units.

DOI
10.1108/S1744-211720147
Publication date
2014-10-27
Book series
Research in Competence-Based Management
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-274-6
eISBN
978-1-78441-274-6
Book series ISSN
1744-2117