Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance: Volume 19

Cover of Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
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Table of contents

(13 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xiv
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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the possible portfolio diversification opportunities between Asian Islamic market and other regions’ Islamic markets; namely USA, Europe, and BRIC. This study makes the initial attempt to fill in the gaps of previous studies by focusing on the proxies of global Islamic markets to identify the correlations among those selected markets by employing the recent econometric methodologies such as multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic–dynamic conditional correlations (MGARCH–DCC), maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). By utilizing the MGARCH-DCC, this chapter tries to identify the strength of the time-varying correlation among the markets. However, to see the time-scale-dependent nature of these mentioned correlations, the authors utilized CWT. For robustness, the authors have applied MODWT methodology as well. The findings tend to indicate that the Asian investors have better portfolio diversification opportunities with the US markets, followed by the European markets. BRIC markets do not offer any portfolio diversification benefits, which may be explained partly by the fact that the Asian markets cover partially the same countries of BRIC markets, namely India and China. Considering the time horizon dimension, the results narrow down the portfolio diversification opportunities only to the short-term investment horizons. The very short-run investors (up to eight days only) can benefit through portfolio diversification, especially in the US and European markets. The above-mentioned results have policy implications for the Asian Islamic investors (e.g., Portfolio Management and Strategic Investment Management).

Abstract

This chapter investigates the presence of a difference in the systemic risk level between Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. The authors compare systemic resilience of three types of banks: fully fledged Islamic banks, purely conventional banks (CB), and CB with Islamic windows. The authors use the market-based systemic risk measures of marginal expected shortfall and systemic risk to identify which type is more vulnerable to a systemic event. The authors also use ΔCoVaR to identify which type contributes more to a systemic event. Using a sample of observations on 27 publicly traded banks operating over the 2005–2014 period, the authors find that CB is the least resilient sector to a systemic event, and is the one that has the highest contribution to systemic risk during crisis times.

Abstract

This chapter explores the determinants of satisfaction of the Islamic microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh. A total of 245, mostly educated and young, borrowers of rural development scheme, the largest Islamic microcredit institution (MCI) in the world, were included in a survey using a structured questionnaire. Factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify influential determinants of satisfaction of microcredit borrowers. Borrowers have identified the activities and interaction in the “center,” which includes weekly/monthly meetings, investment-related training, and group performance review, as the most vital factor influencing their overall satisfaction. Competence of the microcredit staffs and officials is the second important determinant. Trust plays the next important role in overall satisfaction of the borrowers with the Islamic microcredit institutions. Convenience, of applying for loan, getting an approval, and paying instalments, is the other influential determinant of the borrower’s satisfaction. The findings imply that given the competition and social need of the Islamic microcredit institutions globally, policymakers must ensure greater investment in human capital, in creating awareness about products and services of the Islamic microcredits, and in initiating a prudent change in the regulation so that Islamic microcredit can become a tool for sustainable socioeconomic development. Use of a proper marketing strategy can also help the MCIs to support the financial inclusion policy of the government. Satisfaction of the borrowers of the Islamic microcredit institutions is yet to arrive in Islamic marketing literature. The proposed borrower-centric model can help reduce poverty and the internal loan-shark problem through adequate engagement of relevant stakeholders.

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors investigate the correlation between social and economic indicators and Islamic finance, to see whether increasing Islamic banking will increase account penetration in Muslim majority countries. Inclusive financial services are beneficial to a country as a whole, especially for poorer individuals, giving them more access to investment and financing opportunities. Shari’ah law has guidelines for banking that Muslims must follow and many believe that commercial banks do not follow these guidelines. As many individuals cite religious reasons as their excuse for exclusion, there is potential to develop Islamic finance as a means of improving financial access in certain countries. The authors find that individuals from the countries in our study tend to be more religious and that there are potential economic and social benefits to an increase in Islamic banking in this region.

Abstract

Sukuk restructuring primarily aims at offering a debtor more latitude, in form and time, to settle his obligations. To meet Shari’ah requirements of transferring assets to Sukuk holders in asset-based Sukuk, the originator usually transfers the beneficial ownership to the issuer special purpose vehicles (SPV). However, in asset-backed Sukuk, the originator sells the underlying asset to an SPV and Sukuk holders do not have recourse to the originator in the event of defaults. Among some key unresolved Shari’ah issues in this regard is whether a change of contract necessitates entering a new contract. Other related issues that conflict with the tenets of Shari’ah are: (1) Sukuk structuring on tangible assets and debts; (2) receiving the full title by the Sukuk holders to the underlying assets in the event of default in case of securities that are publicized as asset backed; (3) Sukuk’s similarity with interest bearing conventional bonds: (a) capital guarantee by the originator or third party, (b) the originators’ promise to repurchase Sukuk at face value upon their redemption, and (c) providing internal and external credit enhancement. The Shari’ah-compliance of the above-mentioned clauses and structures of Sukuk remain debated among the Shari’ah scholars. Based on some specific cases, this study examines the Shari’ah viewpoint on sukuk restructuring and potential solutions to these unresolved Shari’ah issues in light of the past and recent declaration of some Sukuk defaults as non-Shari’ah complaints. Undoubtedly, resolution of these and other unresolved issues pertaining to Sukuk defaults can help strengthen the confidence of investors in Islamic capital market structures.

Abstract

Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) have gained popularity recently in the Islamic countries and countries with mixed religious practices. Due to its profit–loss sharing partnership contracts and integrated social and risk management practices, IFI can finance financially distressed firms, and firms with specialized sectors, better than the traditional development financial institutions (DFIs). Should they need large amount of financing, both existing financially unsuccessful industries and new development initiatives can be financed with Sukuk issuance. This chapter investigates the growth of these two industries – IFIs and DFIs, with respect to various indicators, compares the initiatives that establish the dominating character of IFIs over the DFIs, discusses the reasons behind such turnaround, and the future of DFIs. IFIs have been enjoying a superior growth in assets and deposits, asset quality, risk management, and profitability over the DFIs in Malaysia. Among many, the study identifies regulatory incentives to IFIs, inefficient management of DFIs, and most importantly, a paradigm shift through Islamic finance as primary reasons behind gradual disappearance of DFIs. The next generation of IFIs will emerge as the Islamic Development Financial Institutions and may takeover the role that is played by the DFIs most recently.

Abstract

This study analyses the threshold for debt of corporations under the debt-bias corporate tax system. We adopt a contingent claim model of the corporation to reflect the incentive effect of the debt-bias corporate tax system. This framework is based on aspiration level theory and the required probability for the successful completion of a project that is identical to decision weight probability in prospect theory. The proposed framework incorporates the debt-bias tax regulations prevailing in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. When the OECD countries’ financial and non-financial corporation data were applied into framework, we observe that the government achieve equilibrium by employing contradictory corporate tax regulations. Moreover, we observe that corporations are intrinsically equity-loving, although the debt-bias corporate tax system stimulates corporations toward debt. This situation makes the government corporate revenue sensitive by placing it at the disposal of corporations’ financing choice instead of corporate profitability. The corporations’ threshold for debt assists in distinguishing between debt and equity-loving corporations. Moreover, corporations’ threshold for debt assists policy makers in deciding the appropriate combination of such reform policies as the Allowance on Corporate Equity and Comprehensive Business Income Tax. A transition from debt-oriented capital structure to equity-oriented capital structure may play an important role in promoting Islamic finance.

Abstract

No one denies that Islamic finance has grown during the last 40 years and numerous Islamic financial instruments have innovated and developed in order to cater to the needs of Muslims. However, the sale- and service-based contracts remain dominant in the market and contribute to creating more debt. Partnership contracts such as mudarabah or musahrakah are least popular due to several practical problems. This chapter examines and identifies the practical challenges of classical mudarabah and proposes a new Islamic financing model – reserve mudarabah with appropriate examples. The model can be a useful tool for SME financing and in Islamic microfinance.

Abstract

Since the 2007–2008 financial crisis, the markets related to housing finance have been restoring their tools and instruments in order to avoid a new crisis. In this period, while attempting to eliminate structural problems in existing housing finance instruments, on the other hand new products were tried to figure out. In particular, products based on risk sharing have frequently come to the forefront, both in the academia and the industry. In this direction, one such innovative product is the participating mortgage, in which the borrower obtains below-market interest rates in return for a percentage of the property’s future appreciation and/or net operating income. Particularly used in conventional markets, participating mortgage can also be applied within the Islamic finance thanks to the model it is based on. This chapter attempts to introduce the method of participating mortgage with detailed background and intellectual investigation. Including the modeling of participating mortgage, this study also shows how this method can be designed under Islamic finance. Furthermore, implications and fields of application are explored with a discussion of challenges. In this chapter, considering the achievements of participating mortgage method, it is asserted that it can enable the product diversity of the Islamic banks, thereby increasing the share in the global banking sector.

Abstract

Islamic banking institutions have been in operation for nearly 50 years now and despite having been in competition with much more entrenched conventional rivals have demonstrated remarkable potential for growth and sustainability in different countries in both Muslim-dominated and Muslim-minority jurisdictions. The sustained upsurge in Islamic banks’ operations level to even a double-digit mark is not accidental but a replica of the levels of engagement of customers with Islamic banking institutions among other factors. There are various studies on Islamic banking, which covered wide range of issues, including those on Islamic banks customers’ patronage factors.

Accordingly, this chapter presents discussions on factors that influence customers’ engagement/patronage with Islamic banking. From plethora of studies conducted over long period of time and in different countries, many different factors have been identified as the determinants of customers’ engagements. The factors include but are not limited to customers’ personal attributes such as their understanding, knowledge, and perceptions of banking products, the banking institutions’ related factors such as product pricing, technology adopted by bank, environmental factors, and other myriads of determinants.

Abstract

Although many previous studies have explored the impact of financial development in promoting economic growth, there is relatively little evidence regarding the effect of political institutions on financial development. This chapter offers strong evidence that political Islam and democracy promote the growth of Islamic finance. The authors use a panel estimator and a sample of 13 Muslim democratic countries for the years 1985–2015 to examine the effect of Islamic political parties and democracy on Islamic finance development. The chapter’s findings provide evidences that Islamist power and democracy are key determinants of Islamic finance development in the studied countries. Moreover, democracy can be captured by political elites in emerging countries where institutions are relatively weak.

Index

Pages 239-249
Content available
Cover of Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
DOI
10.1108/S1569-3767201819
Publication date
2018-12-14
Book series
International Finance Review
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78756-404-6
eISBN
978-1-78756-403-9
Book series ISSN
1569-3767