The New Digital Era: Other Emerging Risks and Opportunities: Volume 109B

Cover of The New Digital Era: Other Emerging Risks and Opportunities

Table of contents

(12 chapters)

Section A: Other Emerging Risks and Opportunities


Purpose: This chapter examines some policy ideas on how to achieve high levels of financial inclusion. It explores policy options that can be used to achieve greater levels of financial inclusion.

Methodology: The chapter uses a discursive approach to analyse the steps to achieving full financial inclusion.

Findings: The chapter offers some suggestions on how to achieve full financial inclusion. They include reducing interest rates, introducing conditional low-interest rates, supporting monetary policies with social security payments, reducing taxes, using targeted government spending, supporting fiscal policies with conditional tax rebate and tax exemptions, financial inclusion–environment decoupling, de-risking the financial system, and ring-fencing banking for the poor.

Originality: This study contributes to the financial inclusion literature by exploring additional ways to achieve high levels of financial inclusion.


Introduction: Tourism Industry is a developing, extensive industry and therefore involving many sectors of the economy. In recent years, the growth of this industry has been almost impossible to conquer since the touristic travels were significantly high for example in 2019; in that year, the Travel & Tourism sector contributed 10.4% to global GDP.

The world’s well-known circumstances have critically affected the development of tourism. One of the irresistible goals for developing countries has become – to find the right approach, a policy to prevent a catastrophic recession.

Aim: Based on empirical research, on the example of country Georgia, the main aim of this work is to analyse the regional approach to identify positive and negative influences on the field and, therefore, calculate the economic impact.

Method: Empirical research includes a collection of the data from statistical portals of the local, Georgian Tourism Administration as well as from the World Tourism Organization and, therefore, analysis of the collected data.

Findings: The results included research materials – analysis of the three pandemic years 2019–2020–2021 (first decade) that clearly showed the willingness and public policy impact on the industry development.


In recent decades, interconnections between countries have increased substantially worldwide as the process of integration and globalisation intensifies, with a positive impact in terms of economic development, but, also with a vulnerability to external shocks, such as the financial contagion phenomenon. The analysis of this research field becomes even more relevant in the context of a new major exogenous shock, but which, this time, has different specificities, being a sanitary crisis. Thus, the chapter aims to investigate the impact of crises on capital market volatility for the period of 1995–2021, using the bibliometric analysis highlighting the dynamics of the literature and potential future research directions through a science mapping that enables investigating scientific knowledge. In order to explore the development of the research field in terms of publications, author impact, affiliated institutions and countries, citation patterns, trending topics, relationship between keywords–authors–journals, abstracts’ analysis, authors and documents clustering by coupling, multiple correspondence analysis of major research themes, keyword analysis, co-citation analysis and authors, institutions and countries collaboration analysis have been applied. Hence, almost 500 publications from Web of Science database covering the period 1995–2021 have been extracted. The empirical findings emphasise the conceptual structure, with clusters focussing mainly on long-term receivables, market efficiency, volatility, dynamic conditional correlation (DCC)-GARCH models, asymmetric effects. According to the intellectual structure of the field, Lambertides N., Zopiatis A., McAleer M. or Savva C. S. are the most representative authors for the sub-area of volatility topic; whilst Balcerzak A. P., Pietrzak M. B., Zinecker M., Meluzin T. and Faldzinski M. are the reference names for the whole spectrum of DCC-GARCH models’ topic. Jayasekera R., Lundblad C., Choundhry T., Gupta R. and Demirer R. are the authors mostly associated with asymmetric effects’ topic, whilst Thorp S., Bouchaud J. P. and Dungey M. with the quantitative finance. The Journal of Banking & Finance, the Journal of International Money and Finance and the International Review of Financial Analysis as well as Economic Modelling, Research in International Business and Finance and the International Journal of Finance & Economics are the most prolific journals in the field of capital flow and financial crises. This chapter’s main contribution is to build a structure of knowledge for the impact of crises on capital market volatility, elaborate and classify empirical research into relevant dimensions that can be used as a reference for comprehensively developing research. Finally, the bibliometric analysis results may provide insight into future research prospects. Our conclusions offer some recommendations for market practitioners and policy-making.


Purpose: This chapter explores some of the difficult issues in financial regulation for financial stability. Noting the lack of prior academic work in the topic, this chapter presents a discussion of some difficult issues in financial regulation for financial stability.

Methodology: The chapter draws from real-world experiences in financial regulation and draws support from existing literature.

Findings and conclusions: Some of the difficult issues include: the difficulty in breaking too-big-to-fail financial institutions into small insignificant parts; the difficulty in regulating executive compensation in the financial sector without limiting the ability of financial institutions to offer competitive pay for executive talent; difficulty in instilling strict financial regulation and supervision without limiting the ability of financial institutions to exploit emerging profitable opportunities; difficulty in ensuring that financial institutions increase lending in bad times and during recessions; the rarity of having both a female CEO and Chair in a major financial institution; difficulty in making Central Banks independent from the Federal Government; difficulty in making financial institutions relevant in the midst of hostile technological innovation and disruption.

Practical implications: The implication of the findings is that financial regulation for financial stability is not an easy task. There will be issues that financial regulation can address, and there will be issues that financial regulation cannot address. Acknowledging that such difficulties exist on the path to financial stability is the first step to addressing these issues.


Introduction: In this era, financial literacy is conceptualised diversely in the literature. However, as a general term, ‘Financial Literacy’ can be said to mean acting in line with one’s material realities whilst using or managing money. Increasing the financial literacy rate amongst students in Kosovo is paramount since it will prepare and support them in making informed investment decisions and in managing their financial situations.

Aim: The study aims to determine the financial literacy levels of students in Kosovo and to determine the relationship between investment decisions and the Covid-19 pandemic.

Method: The dataset examines four factors (i.e. financial literacy, self-control, peer influence and COVID-19) that influence investment behaviour amongst young students in Kosovo. A total of 228 students from Kosovo participated in the study, and the survey measured their financial literacy, investment knowledge, and the COVID-19 impact on their investment decisions using the random sampling technique. The reflective measurement was made using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) on the data scanned from the survey (N = 228). The measurement includes the evaluation of external loading, internal reliability, and convergent reliability. The final equation model was evaluated and estimated using the Smart-PLS v.3.3.3 program.

Findings: The research findings are useful for companies seeking potential investors from generation Y. In addition to that, the results of the research show that students from Kosovo who are more financially literate are more skilled and make more well-informed decisions when investing. In this study, it was determined that the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a negative effect on the investment decisions of students from Kosovo.


Introduction: This study presents defining and analysis of the results of people infected with COVID-19. The main goal of this chapter is to extract and present an overview of COVID-19 pandemic infection; wherewith extracted dataset, we analyse confirmed, deaths and recovery cases.

Aim: This chapter tries to analyse the differences between Balkan states according to affected cases with COVID-19. To achieve our goal, we used a reported dataset from World Health Organization (WHO). The methodology used in this chapter is quantitative by measuring the data and comparing these data. Results show compared cases between countries in Balkan.

Results: The data are analysed using SPSS software. The analysed data show that there exist very important differences between states regarding all cases that are either positive or deaths of recovered. All the data are collected from WHO databases in the CSV file where the number of cases in our dataset is 2,762 rows which include Balkan countries.

Conclusion: All these cases are taken in the period January–December 2020. These contain a total of 10 cases from Balkan countries. In this way, the number of infected, confirmed and death cases is shown in that region.

Originality/value: This chapter contributes to defining and analysing the epidemiology of all states which are part of Balkan territory. As we know, COVID-19 has its impact in different forms but the greatest consequences in these places are tremendous. According to WHO reports, we see three statements of cases which are cured, died and infected up until now. The most powerful states in the world have passed this period of infection in different forms successfully, but some of them, such as in the Balkan region, have failed by having numerous deaths and this had an impact on the economy, free movement of people and so on.


This research aimed to determine the mediating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and leadership styles. Two hundred hardware and footwear entrepreneurs from the Las Malvinas Commercial Emporium, Lima, Peru were surveyed. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) multivariate statistical technique was applied for data analysis. It was found that there is a complementary mediating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and leadership styles. On the other hand, it was concluded that entrepreneurial passion has a positive influence on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Likewise, there is a positive influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on leadership styles, and there is a positive influence of entrepreneurial passion for leadership styles. This research contributed theoretically to the academic literature and provided empirical evidence of the relationship of the proposed variables; it proved a new predictive and explanatory structural model that can now be used in future research worldwide and generated a model of the studied variables that are useful for both academia and the business world.


Purpose: In this chapter, the author evaluates the association between bank loan loss provisions (LLP) and the pre-provisions earnings of UK banks during the first-wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A positive co-movement between the two variables indicates income smoothing.

Methodology: Graphical analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis are used to assess the relationship between income smoothing and bank provisions among UK systemic banks.

Findings: The findings show that LLP have an inverted V-shaped property during the first-wave of COVID-19 pandemic. LLP reached its highest level at the peak of the pandemic in Q2 2020 and declined in the subsequent quarters. The regression results show that LLP are positively related to pre-provisions earnings during the pandemic quarters and in the pre-pandemic quarters. The relationship is stronger in the pandemic quarters and indicates higher income smoothing in the pandemic quarters. The correlation results also show a strong positive correlation between bank provisions and pre-provisions earnings in the pandemic period. In the individual bank analysis, three of the four systemic banks exhibit higher income smoothing during the pandemic quarters.

Implication: UK systemic banks engaged in earnings management as a coping mechanism to mitigate the effect of the pandemic on their profits.

Need for the study/originality: This chapter is the first to provide a preliminary analysis of income smoothing among banks during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Introduction: In the context of globalisation processes, the necessity to create appropriate information support for management decisions at various levels becomes increasingly important: at the international, national and enterprise levels. The source of such data is financial reporting. The last leads to increase attention from key users (investors, lenders, other users) to the reliability and quality of financial reporting data. The study of scientific literature and best foreign practices made it possible to identify problems of the theoretical, organisational and methodological background of preparing high-quality financial statements and their assessment, particularly the lack of a unified interpretation of the financial reporting quality concept. The necessity to identify a theoretical basis for assessing financial reporting quality has led to the relevance of this study.

Aim: Scientific substantiation and improvement of theoretical provisions of methodology development for financial reporting quality assessment.

Methods used within the study are the following: Analysis, synthesis, operational approach, bibliographic analysis, generalisation.

Findings: The application of an operational approach to the formulation of the definition of financial reporting quality has made it possible to create the basis for its assessment. This approach involves descriptions of the principles of clarity and uniformity. The authors define the concept of ‘financial reporting quality’, formulating the theoretical principles for financial reporting assessment as the process of establishing compliance of financial statements with a specific list of qualitative characteristics.


Probability of Default (PD) is a crucial credit risk parameter. International accords have motivated banks and credit institutions to adopt objective systems of evaluating and monitoring the PD. This study examines retail unsecured loans of a major Greek bank during the period of the financial crisis. It focusses on the stochastic behaviour of the financial states of the loans. It is tested whether a first-order Markov chain (MC) model describes sufficiently the transitions from one state to another. Moreover, Poisson regression models are estimated in order to calculate the limiting transition matrix, the limiting state probabilities and the PD. It is proved that the MC of the financial states of loans is non-homogeneous suggesting that the transition probabilities from one financial state to another are not constant across time. From the Poisson regression models, the transition probability matrix is estimated from one state to another in alternative time periods. From the limiting transition matrix, it is shown that if a loan is delayed then it is very likely to move towards the next worst case. The findings of this research could be useful for bank management.

Cover of The New Digital Era: Other Emerging Risks and Opportunities
Publication date
Book series
Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
Book series ISSN