Risk Management Post Financial Crisis: A Period of Monetary Easing: Volume 96

Subject:

Table of contents

(26 chapters)
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Abstract

Financial markets have experienced considerable turbulence over the past two decades. The recent subprime and sovereign debt crises in the United States and Europe, respectively, have resulted in significant new regulatory responses. They also prompted the re-evaluation of how best to manage and measure financial risk. The 20 chapters in this volume provide a number of different perspectives on financial risk in the post-crisis period where monetary easing has become a predominant monetary policy. While asset price volatility has now returned to levels experienced in the mid-2000s many lessons remain. Among the most important is the need to accurately measure and manage the complex risks that exist in financial markets. Our hope is that the chapters presented here provide a better understanding of how best to do this, while also giving insights for next suitable steps and further developments.

Abstract

Standard financial risk management practices proved unable to provide an adequate understanding and a timely warning of the financial crisis. In particular, the theoretical foundations of risk management and the statistical calibration of risk models are called into question. Policy makers and practitioners respond by looking for new analytical approaches and tools to identify and address new sources of financial risk. Financial markets satisfy reasonable criteria of being considered complex adaptive systems, characterized by complex financial instruments and complex interactions among market actors. Policy makers and practitioners need to take both a micro and macro view of financial risk, identify proper transparency requirements on complex instruments, develop dynamic models of information generation that best approximate observed financial outcomes, and identify and address the causes and consequences of systemic risk. Complexity analysis can make a useful contribution. However, the methodological suitability of complexity theory for financial systems and by extension for risk management is still debatable. Alternative models drawn from the natural sciences and evolutionary theory are proposed.

Abstract

In this chapter we investigate the response of bond markets to macroeconomic news announcements in the euro area. Specifically, we analyze the impact of (un)expected changes in the interest rate, unemployment rate, consumer confidence index and industrial production index on the returns, volatility and correlations of European government bond markets. Overall, our results suggest that, bond return volatility strongly reacts to news announcements and that the response is asymmetric. However, the influence of macroeconomic news announcements appears insignificant for bond returns. Finally, our results paint a complex picture of the effect of macroeconomic news releases on correlations.

Abstract

To raise the quality of regulatory capital, Basel III capital rules recognize unrealized gains and losses on all available-for-sale (AFS) securities in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital (CET1). However, by examining the correlations between U.S. GDP growth rate, interest rates and regulatory capital ratios computed using Basel III regulatory capital definition for six U.S. global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) since 2007, this chapter finds that Basel III regulatory capital will enhance the pro-cyclicality of Basel III leverage ratio and Tier 1 capital ratio and their sensitivity to long-term interest rates. Therefore, Basel III capital standards may have significant implications for bank supervision and bank capital risk management in the near future. As banks will hold more high-quality liquid assets (HQLAs) as required by Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), the weight of unrealized gains and losses arising from fair value accounting will increase in Basel III Tier 1 capital base, the consequent increase of pro-cyclicality in a bank’s regulatory capital ratios may distort the true picture of bank capital adequacy. If an expected loss approach (EL) is used as the provisioning model, such capital risk may be increased further. Moreover, as U.S. monetary policy has started tapering quantitative easing, long-term interest rates will increase inevitably. This may increase the negative impact of unrealized gains and losses on AFS securities on bank capital. As a result, it may be difficult for banks to maintain appropriate capital ratios to meet regulatory requirements and support business activities.

Abstract

In this chapter, we estimate the Expected Shortfall (ES) in conditional autoregressive expectile models by using a nonparametric multiple expectile regression via gradient tree boosting. This approach has the advantages generated by the flexibility of not having to rely on data assumptions and avoids the drawbacks and fragilities of a restrictive estimator such as Historical Simulation. We consider distinct specifications for the information sets that produce the ES estimates. The results obtained with simulated and real market data indicate that the proposed approach has good performance, with some distinctions between the specifications.

Abstract

This chapter examines the impact of price fluctuations in foreign stock markets on the stock prices of domestic banks in Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Some studies have argued that the 2007–2009 global financial crisis (GFC) affected domestic banks less in East Asia, even though the supporting evidence is rather limited. Employing a multinomial logit model, we estimate how changes in the United States and Japanese stock markets affected the banking sectors in the sampled countries before the 1997 Asian financial crisis, and before and during the more recent GFC. We interpret the number of banks in a given country that experienced a large price shock on the same day (or “coexceedance”) as shocks to the domestic banking sector. The results suggest that fluctuations in foreign stock market indices exerted a larger impact on the prices of East Asian banking stocks during the 2000s than during the 1990s. In addition, although the shocks brought about by the deterioration of foreign stock markets were significant before the GFC, both increases and decreases in foreign stock prices significantly affected the banking sectors of the respective countries during the crisis. Lastly, we conclude that increasing foreign capital flows and foreign assets and liabilities greatly influenced domestic banking systems in East Asia during the 2000s.

Abstract

This chapter measures financial integration in 10 industries over 4 different periods. We use two robust measures of integration: (i) the Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009)’s multi-factor R-square and (ii) the Volosovych (2011)’s integration index. Both measures, based on PCA, indicate that the difference between the level of integration over the period 2009–2012 (“Post-Lehman” era) and the level of integration over the period 1994–1998 (“Post-Liberalizations” era) is relatively high. In addition, the level of financial integration across international equity markets decreased during the late 1990s. This suggests that de jure integration does not necessarily improve de facto integration. Overall, our findings give rise to a “diversification benefits-insurance benefits trade-off.”

Abstract

This chapter challenges a commonly accepted view such that the increase in monetary supply aiming to lower the market rate and/or aiming to ease liquidity conditions would encourage the banks as financial intermediaries or the investors as fund providers to provide more funds, which results in stimulating the macro-economy. This chapter suggests that there is no clear-cut mechanism in the economic theory for underpinning the commonly accepted view upon which the Quantitative Easing policy is based. This theoretical analysis suggests that there may exist an appropriate level of market reference rate, which can encourage the investors to absorb the relatively wider range of credit risk in the bond market. Extremely higher market rate would discourage the borrowers to raise funds, while lower market rate would drain “risk” funds in the bond market. In this context, the appropriate level of market rate may stand on a narrow range of the kind of “knife-edge,” though the level per se does not always guarantee the optimal allocation of financial resources.

Abstract

This chapter estimates causality properties between real money demand and a number of determinants, that is, real output, the lending rate and the real exchange rate, across 10 Asian economies through linear and nonlinear causality methodologies spanning the period 1990–2012. The results document both bidirectional and unidirectional causality between monetary aggregates (M1 and M2) and their determinants for different country groups. The empirical findings exemplify the role of the demand for money as a policy tool and can provide useful policy recommendations to the Asian monetary authorities in their vision of forming a future monetary union.

Abstract

A number of studies have examined the role of typical demand supply factors in explaining inflation. The contribution in this chapter is to investigate the possible role of product market imperfections on inflation and inflation persistence, especially among emerging market economies. Using a backward-looking Phillips curve framework in a dynamic panel framework of 105 countries over the 2008–2011 period, our findings suggest that product market competition, as measured by the World Economic Forum’s measure of goods market imperfections do have a significant impact on inflation persistence. On average, higher competition and efficiency in product markets reduces the inflation persistence effect especially in the MENA region and countries at lower stages of development.

Unlocking Credit

Pages 221-252
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Abstract

Pledging collateral to secure loans is a prominent feature in financing contracts around the world. Existing theories disagree on why borrowers pledge collateral. It is even more challenging to understand why in some countries collateral coverage exceeds, for example, 300% of the value of a loan. This study looks at the association between collateral coverage and country-level governance and various institutional proxies. It investigates the economic implications of steep collateral coverage and sketches policy options to lower ex-ante asymmetric information and ex-post agency problems. Within this framework, should a lender collect the debt forcibly on default and liquidated assets fetch prices below outstanding loan values, the lender’s loss is covered through credit insurance, which would significantly reduce the need for steep collateral coverage. This proposal may increase level of private credit, investment and growth; particularly, in a number of developing countries where collateral spread is the main inhibitor of finance.

Abstract

The interbank market in China experienced remarkable squeezes in liquidity in 2013. In particular, the overnight Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate reached a historical high in June. Banks were unprepared, facing the occurrence of various liquidity demands simultaneously. Effects of the liquidity squeeze spread across markets, and concerns were expressed about the health of the banking sector in the world’s second largest economy. Yet the central bank of China maintained an unswerving view that the tightness of liquidity was only structural, and could be overcome by the commercial banks themselves. While it may be too early to judge whether the central bank was correct, or whether there is systematic liquidity risk in the banking sector, markets received a clear signal from the People’s Bank of China. The central bank stopped acting as a ‘perpetual put option’ for commercial banks and refused to take responsibility to satisfy liquidity needs in the interbank market. Its intention is clear; that is, to adjust monetary policy and support economic reform in China. The new Chinese government seems determined to steer a new course away from the previous growth episode. Its resolution has been published and actions have been taken. Among them, the central bank’s changes to monetary policy have received responses from the markets, and the People’s Bank of China is now in the vanguard of a battle to squeeze liquidity. It is difficult to predict what further actions the government will take. However, it should be aware that the driving force of economic reform in China comes from structural change and productivity improvement. Without follow-up policies, complication in the financial system could undermine the central bank’s effort and international capital flows may quickly substitute the opening position of the central bank in the interbank market. More wisdom is required if China is to win the battle for deleveraging and structural reform.

Abstract

A thorough understanding of transmission mechanism is a key to a successful conduct of monetary policy. This chapter attempts to improve knowledge in this respect by examining the impacts of commercial bank risks on the transmission of monetary policy. We investigate the impact of monetary policy on bank risk in Vietnam pre and post 2008 global financial crisis employing a unique and disaggregated bank level data set from 2003 to 2012. The results of panel data estimation indicate that the bank lending channel of monetary is evidenced in Vietnam. In addition, we find that the transmission mechanism is affected by characteristics of commercial banks.

Abstract

This study conducts a logistic regression analysis of the ability of excess cash and short-term bank loans to substitute for each other and a multiple regression analysis of the factors influencing excess cash and short-term bank loans holdings. In addition, a questionnaire is used to survey the views of Taiwan’s corporate financial leaders on the factors influencing these two liquidity resources. The empirical results support a certain level of substitution between the two types of holdings. The regression analysis shows that for companies that would accumulate more excess cash when interest rates are low, have strong corporate performance, have low debt ratios, and whose chairman of the board and chief executive officer (CEO) are not the same person. Companies tend to have more short-term bank loans when corporate performance is poor, debt ratios are high, and the chairman of the board and CEO are the same person, as well as when the degree of the deviation of control is small. We find that factors on financial structure, operating performance, cost of capital and corporate governance have significant influence on the holdings of these two liquidity facilities in regression, whereas the influence factors exclude corporate governance in questionnaire.

Abstract

If banks solve an inter-temporal problem under adverse selection and moral hazard, then bank specific factors, regulatory and supervisory features, market structure, and macroeconomic factors can be expected to affect banks’ loan interest rates and their spread over deposit interest rates. To examine interest rate pass-through for Indian banks in a period following extensive financial reform, after controlling for all these factors, we estimate the determinants of commercial banks’ loan pricing decisions, using the dynamic panel data methodology with annual data for a sample of 33 banks over the period 1996–2012. Results show commercial banks consider several factors apart from the policy rate. This limits policy pass-through. More competition reduces policy pass-through by decreasing the loan rate as well as spreads. If managerial efficiency is high then an increase in competition increases the policy pass-through and the vice-versa. Reform has had mixed effects, while managerial inefficiency raised rates and spreads, product diversification reduced both. Costs of deposits are passed on to loan rates. Regulatory requirements raise loan rates and spreads.

Abstract

All over the world, the role of central banks is being redefined following the outbreak of the global financial crisis and subsequent breakdown of the “great moderation” consensus. Consequently, most advanced economies adopted non-conventional approaches of monetary policy which resulted in spill-overs to emerging markets and developing countries with implications on their financial system and monetary policy transmission. This, coupled with, internal developments in the financial systems of developing countries necessitated modifications of not only monetary policy frameworks but also responsibilities of most central banks. This chapter acknowledges possible evolutions of the financial structure variables in developing countries and uses data from Kenya to analyze the dynamic linkages between financial sector variables and monetary policy transmission in the light of the financial crisis. The study used structural vector autoregression to examine the relationship between financial structure variables and monetary policy as well as assess the relative importance of various monetary transmission channels in Kenya. The results show that the changing financial structure represented by credit to the private sector and stock market indicators in Kenya only slightly altered relative importance of monetary policy transmission. The insignificance of credit to the private sector suggests that the importance attached to the bank lending channel in previous studies is waning while the marginal significance of the stock market indicator signals the potential for asset price channel. The results also indicate that the interest rate and exchange rate channels are relatively more important in Kenya while the asset prices is only marginally significant and bank lending channel is the weakest in the intermediate stage of monetary policy transmission. However, transmission of monetary policy to the ultimate objectives is somewhat slow and weak to inflation and almost absent to output. The result implies a limited role of monetary policy on growth and questions the wisdom of pursuing multiple objectives.

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Abstract

The Dim Sum bond market in Hong Kong, which allows China to regulate the amount of offshore yuans that flow back into the mainland, has grown steadily since its inception in 2007 and is expected to surpass in 2013 the threshold level that would attract insurers and long-term issuers to the market. Yet, the market has not matured sufficiently relative to the yuan deposit market in Hong Kong that has grown at a much faster pace on account of trade liberalization and the use of yuans in China’s international trade settlements. Even though Hong Kong has fulfilled its role as an offshore currency center for the yuan, it is being challenged by Taiwan, Singapore, and London in terms of being the premier location for the issuance of yuan-denominated bonds outside of Mainland China.

Abstract

This study searches for sentimental herding in Borsa Istanbul (BIST) during the last decade using a state-space model employing cross-section standard deviations of systematic risk (Beta). It has been found that herding toward the market in the BIST-100 is both statistically significant and persistent independently from market fundamentals such as the volatility of returns and the levels of market returns. Herding trends over the sample period indicate that the financial crisis in 2000–2001 appeared to bring about sentimental herding in BIST which was followed by a calm period during which investors turned to fundamentals. Thereafter, we observe a volatile adverse herding pattern till the end of 2011 due to the confusing environment caused by the internal and external events.

Abstract

Speculative bubbles have been occurring periodically in local or global real-estate markets and are considered a potential cause of economic crises. In this context, the detection of explosive behaviors in the financial market and the implementation of early warning diagnosis tests are of critical importance. The recent increase in Brazilian housing prices has risen concerns that the Brazilian economy may have a speculative housing bubble. In the present chapter, we employ a recently proposed recursive unit root test in order to identify possible speculative bubbles in data from the Brazilian residential real-estate market. The empirical results show evidence for speculative price bubbles both in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the two main Brazilian cities.

Abstract

Application of financial risk models in the emerging markets poses special challenges. A fundamental challenge is to accurately model the return distributions which are particularly fat tailed and skewed. Value-at-Risk (VaR) measures based on the Extreme Value Theory (EVT) have been suggested, but typically data histories are limited, making it hard to test and apply EVT. The chapter addresses issues in (i) modeling the VaR measure in the presence of structural breaks in an economy, (ii) the choice of stable innovation distribution with volatility clustering effects, (iii) modeling the tails of the empirical distribution, and (iv) fixing the cut-off point for isolating extreme observations. Pakistan offers an instructive case since its equity market exhibits high volatility and incidence of extreme returns. The recent Global Financial Crisis has been another source of extreme returns. The confluence of the two sources of volatility provides us with a rich data set to test the VaR/EVT model rigorously and examine practical challenges in its application in an emerging market.

Index

Pages 439-442
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DOI
10.1108/S1569-3759201496
Publication date
2014-10-01
Book series
Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-027-8
eISBN
978-1-78441-026-1
Book series ISSN
1569-3759