Inclusive Pedagogy Across the Curriculum: Volume 7

Cover of Inclusive Pedagogy Across the Curriculum
Subject:

Table of contents

(20 chapters)
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List of Contributors

Pages vii-viii
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Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of inclusive pedagogy, also referred to as the inclusive pedagogical approach (Florian & Black-Hawkins, 2011). Conceptually, the approach is predicated on a shift in pedagogical thinking away from conventional approaches that work for most learners existing alongside something additional or different for those (some) who experience difficulties, towards one that involves providing rich learning opportunities that are sufficiently made available for everyone, so that all learners are able to participate in classroom life. By focusing on how achievements in learning are realised through participation in the community of a classroom, the inclusive pedagogical approach acknowledges that there are individual differences between learners but avoids the problems and stigma associated with marking some learners as different. The second part of the chapter explains how the approach can be incorporated into the daily life of classroom activity using the Inclusive-Pedagogical-Approach-in-Action framework that was developed as a tool for assessing and gathering evidence about practice (Florian, 2014; Florian & Spratt, 2013).

Abstract

Drawing from the inclusive pedagogical approach in action framework and Pierre Bourdieu’s social theory concepts of habitus, field and capital, this chapter positions literacy and numeracy learning as core components of further learning, and living successfully in the world. It addresses learner diversity in early childhood settings and recognises the uniqueness of every child within the context of a broad range of cultural knowledge. The chapter concludes with two sample lessons and reflective questions, which early childhood teachers can use as models to expand children’s literacy and numeracy concepts, enabling creative and critical interactions across a range of modes in the context of everyday life across families and cultures.

Abstract

In this chapter we detail our understandings of inclusive pedagogical practices that enable all students to assemble complex literate repertoires. We discuss generative concepts from international related literature (e.g. Au, Dyson, Janks, Luke, McNaughton, Moll, Thomson). We then present descriptions of two lessons as examples of how inclusive pedagogical practices might look in primary and secondary classrooms. The focus will be on how texts work to represent the world in particular ways and not others – and the implications of this for the inclusion of diverse student cohorts in developing complex literate repertoires.

Abstract

The focus of this chapter is on the effective and inclusive classroom practices for the teaching and learning of mathematics at the primary and early secondary levels. The research literature and major national and international reports on effective and inclusive mathematics teaching at the primary and secondary levels of schooling are examined. Some of the challenges to inclusive mathematics teaching are explored. Based in Florian’s (2014) inclusive pedagogical approach in action framework, a research-based exemplar of effective and inclusive primary mathematics teaching is described. The elements of effective and inclusive practices at the secondary level are outlined and a sample lesson presented. Potential impediments to inclusivity are examined.

Abstract

This chapter explores the nature of science and different values that underpin science as a way of thinking and acting. While teachers and learners can interpret values differently, the focus of this chapter will be on:

  • Building a shared understanding of values and how they may manifest in the science classroom;

  • How such a shared understanding can be developed in teachers through professional learning opportunities;

  • How professional learning involves experiencing reaching consensus from positions of difference and looks at the role this plays in new scientific knowledge being accepted;

  • How values might be embedded in teaching and learning of science and the implications of this for teaching a diversity of students. Teacher reflections captured in the form of cases provide various examples which identify what inclusive practices might look like in primary and secondary classrooms.

Building a shared understanding of values and how they may manifest in the science classroom;

How such a shared understanding can be developed in teachers through professional learning opportunities;

How professional learning involves experiencing reaching consensus from positions of difference and looks at the role this plays in new scientific knowledge being accepted;

How values might be embedded in teaching and learning of science and the implications of this for teaching a diversity of students. Teacher reflections captured in the form of cases provide various examples which identify what inclusive practices might look like in primary and secondary classrooms.

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Abstract

Physical Education remains a contested concept across the world maintaining links in various ways and in varying degrees to education, sport and health. The close and historical links of these areas upon Physical Education have continued to influence both policy and practice and have impacted significantly upon areas such as inclusive pedagogy. This chapter firstly seeks to explain the unique landscape of Physical Education before considering specific issues of inclusion within Physical Education. A move towards inclusive pedagogies within Physical Education is then explained before lesson examples are offered for both the primary and secondary Physical Education practitioner.

Abstract

In contrast to the ‘bell-curve thinking’ which can shape many teachers’ assumptions of student ability (Fendler, L., & Muzaffar, I. (2008). The history of the bell curve: Sorting and the idea of normal. Educational Theory, 58(1), 63–82.; Florian & Black-Hawkins, 2011; Thomas, G., & Loxley, A. (2007). Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International.), some researchers have been examining the ways in which teachers can shift their deterministic understandings of student capacities (see, Graham, A. (2014). Embodiment of knowledge and inclusive pedagogy.; Spratt, J., & Florian, L. (2014). Developing and using a framework for gauging the use of inclusive pedagogy by new and experienced teachers. In C. Forlin, T. Loreman (Eds.), Measuring inclusive education (Vol. 3, pp. 263–278). International Perspectives on Inclusive Education. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.). Despite the adverse effects on student self-efficacy and performance (Fraser, S. (1995). The bell curve wars: Race, intelligence, and the future of America. New York, NY: Basic Books.) that can result from teachers’ assumptions about students’ ability, evidence of teachers’ inclusive education practices can be difficult to find (Forlin, C. (2010). Teacher education for inclusion: Changing paradigms and innovative approaches. London: Routledge.; Jones, P. (2013). Bringing insider perspectives into inclusive teacher learning: Potentials and challenges for educational professionals. London: Routledge.). This chapter begins to address the lack of evidence of inclusive educational practices in some Geography classrooms. The chapter begins by providing an overview of literature which outlines how the development and sharing of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) can enhance effective inclusive practices in Geography classrooms. In contrast to many previous considerations of PCK as a teacher-focussed, individual attribute, this chapter presents an argument that the development of communal or distributed PCK in Geography classrooms can not only enhance creative ways for all students to participate in classroom life but also creates a sense of interdependence between teachers and students to create new knowledge, which in turn links to notions of identity development and inclusive practices. Finally, this chapter presents examples of ways in which Geography teachers can enact inclusive pedagogical approaches in both primary and secondary school contexts.

Abstract

This chapter explores the way teaching music lends itself to the inclusive pedagogical approach in action framework, focusing on four key areas: working outside of ability groups, using what learners can do as their starting point, engaging in learning at their own level whilst contributing to a collaborative outcome and developing the whole creative child rather than just a skillset.

Abstract

This chapter argues that the ‘Friday afternoon’ approach to art education needs to change; the conversation needs to be more about art and the impact that it has had and continues to have. Children need to be surrounded by art to a greater extent and should be seen as multi-dimensional learners who can create art, acknowledging that they do not all think, and learn, the same ways. It is their unique characteristics that will help shape them as artists. This chapter uses the works of ‘The Masters’ to support the view that there is no right or wrong when creating art and that supporting students to understand that great art only stands out because it is different and does not follow preordained rules or styles is important. Visual Arts teaching should encourage personal judgment, subjectivity, and provide students the opportunities to find their unique voice and to have the confidence to use it.

Abstract

The focus of this chapter is the role of technology in diverse students’ active learning and interconnectedness in inclusive classrooms. The discussion is guided by the inclusive pedagogical approach in action (IPAA) framework, which is used as a tool for planning teaching and critical reflection. Inclusive education has previously considered the role of technology through the lens of Universal Design for Learning to inform how teachers plan instruction for students’ maximal accessibility, participation and engagement. We use the IPAA framework to build on and extend this by challenging teachers to also consider and incorporate technologies in innovative ways for students to collaborate with each other and build classroom relationships, as well as engaging with the curriculum on their own terms to make learning more meaningful.

Abstract

This chapter will focus on how inclusive pedagogic practices can be played out in primary and secondary classrooms where the goal is using languages other than the learners’ home language as both the medium and content of learning (i.e. learning to use language and using languages to learn). This requires an approach which is inclusive, flexible and relates to any context – both languages and subject classrooms. The focus will be on how using an integrated approach to the curriculum, in which languages are used as a tool for learning, has the potential to be motivating and accessible to very diverse learners.

The chapter includes two lessons – the primary lesson plan will expand how simple language can be used to develop and enjoy painting and art with young students and the secondary lesson plan will focus on how a visual approach to thematic or cross-disciplinary work, such as natural disasters, can supplement and support deeper understanding of other areas of the curriculum as well as building confidence in communicating in an alternative language.

Abstract

The chapter is a practise led example of how the inclusive pedagogical approach in action (IPAA) framework lives as evidence of inclusive pedagogy. In particular it draws on understandings of cross-curriculum design as an approach that supports teaching practises for all children. Some readers may be familiar with the language of curriculum differentiation. Commonalties may be seen in the approaches that advocate for curriculum differentiation and cross-curriculum design, however not a lot is gained by adding another language game or rule of curriculum talk which asserts the power of difference by applying the language of differentiation as the focus for inclusive pedagogical action. As the IPAA framework stresses, teachers must believe that they are qualified and capable of teaching all children. Teachers who are engaged in the IPAA in action continually develop creative new ways of working and their professional stance is one where they are willing to work with others (including all of their students) to continually enhance their professional learning through practise orientations. Hence, in this chapter, both the theoretical underpinnings of effective teaching associated with the cross-curriculum design are assumed to have a potential link to any one of the other curricular areas specified in this book. Cross-curriculum design inherently foregrounds inclusive pedagogical possibilities and a concern for knowing more about curriculum theorising and reimaging classroom practice for all students, that is engaging in generative and productive pedagogical work.

Abstract

This chapter considers the notion of inclusive pedagogy in terms of issues arising through such practice related to teacher learning, reflection and the development of expertise. By drawing on these ideas, the notion of inclusive pedagogy, and specifically the inclusive pedagogical approach in action framework, understandings of teaching and learning are examined that illustrate the importance of creating conditions for learning that can make a difference for all students. These ideas have important ramifications for teacher education – both pre-service and in-service – and the nature of those ramifications is considered in ways that are designed to illustrate why it is that teaching is complex and sophisticated business.

About the Authors

Pages 291-293
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Cover of Inclusive Pedagogy Across the Curriculum
DOI
10.1108/S1479-363620157
Publication date
2015-11-26
Book series
International Perspectives on Inclusive Education
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-648-5
eISBN
978-1-78441-647-8
Book series ISSN
1479-3636