Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions: Volume 16

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(12 chapters)


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Although primarily treated as two distinct research streams, strategic alliances and mergers and acquisitions together occupy much of the strategic management discourse. Alliances, in many cases, end in acquisitions as firms use alliances as intermediate strategic options to eventually acquire a partner. As the discipline of strategy matures and the frequency and the volume of inter-firm cooperation continue to rise, it is imperative to integrate these two research streams for a holistic understanding of the theory of the firm. The purpose of this conceptual piece is threefold. First, we review the extant studies that combine these two governance modes: alliance and acquisitions. Second, drawing on the dominant strategic management theories, we highlight how prior inter-firm alliances inform future acquisitions in terms of (a) pre-combination decisions, (b) post-deal integration processes, (c) alternatives and strategies, and (d) performance outcomes. Finally, in view of the emerging trends and evocative gaps, we offer a conceptual road map to encourage future theoretical development and empirical research.


A brief review of merger and acquisition (M&A) publications, while indicating high failure rates, also indicate that few studies have neither focused on the pre-merger period nor the contributions from leaders and managers, and especially during that period. Additionally, there are limited “behavioral due diligence” (BDD) assessment(s). This chapter begins with a brief overview of definitions. It continues with a data-driven presentation focused on the limited publications and research of M&A pre-mergers (compared with the post-M&A period). This is followed by discussions on M&A-related BDD and leader/manager tasks, activities, and issues. These dialogues set the foundation for M&A actions, and research, focused on leaders and managers relative to BDD in the pre-merger phase. This chapter will close with recommendations of “going forward” and a conclusion.


The success of mergers and acquisitions are contingent upon organizational operations, legal structures, and fiscal responsibilities. Each of these areas requires a proper mix of human capital – people – assigned to carry out the objectives and goals of the emerging entity. Within the general knowledge of Mergers and acquisitions (M&As), research focusing upon these aspects of human capital have been lacking. This chapter adds to the current knowledge of M&A human resources by establishing a framework that can direct future research.


Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are arguably one of the CEOs greatest challenges, and there is a critical need to get these decisions right. It is clear that no single theory is adequate to describe or inform how M&A are evaluated in uncertain conditions, but there are several that offer partial explanations or at least contribute toward our understanding of how managers can deal with the uncertain environment and assess the likely risks associated with M&A. The literature suggests how relevant theories might be aggregated to make sense of strategic investment decision and investment appraisal techniques in an organizational context and considers the implications for further research in this important area of M&A. This chapter focuses on strategic investment appraisal, and draws together a variety of theoretical perspectives, especially from the field of psychology, which may be unfamiliar to both scholars in and practitioners.


Special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) are created by a group of specialists to pool funds for financing future acquisitions within a specified time limit. SPACs are basically “shell” companies with no operations and business, assets or liabilities but they acquire the status of public corporations through initial public offerings (IPOs). The SPAC founders use the IPO funds to acquire a potential target. They are generally found to be successful to close an mergers & acquisitions (M&A) deal but they may not bother to ensure perpetual success of the acquired entity for a long time. In many countries, “shell” companies are characterized as the “bad boys” of the corporate world but they can be used for long-lasting successful M&As due to their inherent strengths, if they play the role of protagonists and “good guys” as SPACs. This chapter examines how SPACs can be used as special vehicles to ensure worthy and successful acquisitions to create sustainable corporations.


While the literature on corporate strategy has typically focused on examining diversification along the industry and geographical market dimensions, this study seeks to supplement previous research by introducing the concept of business model as a new way of thinking about diversification. Specifically, by integrating the literatures on business models, diversification, and acquisition strategy, we provide a conceptual analysis of how business model relatedness may influence performance implications of M&As. When business models among acquirers and targets are related, the sharing and transfer of superior resources may improve post-acquisition performance. In contrast, when business models among acquirers and targets are unrelated, internal and external identity conflicts may harm post-acquisition performance. Moreover, the conceptual framework developed in this study suggests that even if acquirers and targets are related in a product and geographical market sense, dissimilarities across business models may still harm post-acquisition performance. Overall, we suggest that using the recently emerged concept of business model may provide a new step in examining diversification decisions above and beyond the traditionally examined concepts of product and geographical markets, providing a more complete understanding of when and how multibusiness firms can create value.


Cross-cultural mergers and acquisitions (M&As) can generate the number of negative feelings and emotions among the survivors of the deal. These negative outcomes can range from lowered commitment, lack of productivity, and talent loss to the more serious work alienation. Hence, this chapter is an attempt to identify the employees’ level of commitment and their feelings of alienation in the post-M&A integration phase. Also, provided training has proven to be important in building employee commitment and mitigating the feelings of alienation, this studies the relationship of these psychological outcomes with the different kinds of training provided to them during post-M&A situations. The vast literature review studied revealed a significant relationship between employees’ perceived effectiveness of training and their level of commitment with the newly merged firm, while an inverse relationship was found with employees’ feelings of alienation. This chapter has crucial implications for researchers and practitioners.


The PMI Risk Framework (PRF) is introduced as a guide to classifying and identifying risks which can be the source of post-merger integration (PMI) failure — commonly referred to as “culture clash.” To provide managers with actionably insight, PRF dissects PMI risk into specific relationship-oriented phenomena, critical to outcomes and which should be addressed during PMI. This framework is a conceptual and theory-grounded integration of numerous perspectives, such as organizational psychology, group dynamics, social networks, transformational change, and nonlinear dynamics. These concepts are unified and can be acted upon by integration managers. Literary resources for further exploration into the underlying aspects of the framework are provided. The PRF places emphasis on critical facets of PMI, particularly those which are relational in nature, pose an exceptionally high degree of risk, and are recurrent sources of PMI failure. The chapter delves into relationship-oriented points of failure that managers face when overseeing PMI by introducing a relationship-based, PMI risk framework. Managers are often not fully cognizant of these risks, thus fail to manage them judiciously. These risks do not naturally abide by common scholarly classifications and cross disciplinary boundaries; they do not go unrecognized by scholars, but until the introduction of PRF the risks have not been assimilated into a unifying framework. This chapter presents a model of PMI risk by differentiating and specifying numerous types of underlying human-relationship-oriented risks, rather than considering PMI cultural conflict as a monolithic construct.


Cultural, social, and psychological perspectives on mergers assume conflict to be an important mediator of post-merger outcomes. Yet, despite a growing literature on the human side of mergers, conflict in mergers remains poorly understood.

Based on the disputing perspective and negotiated order theory, a contextual and dynamic approach is presented along with propositions to guide future empirical research in the form of a process model of post-merger order negotiation.

When negotiating the post-merger order, different issues emerge that are embedded in the broader context of the merger.

Adopting this theoretical framework allows us to understand the intergroup dynamics and antagonistic behavior observed in mergers.


The purpose of this chapter is to explain why ethical evaluation of the impact of a merger or acquisition matters, to place ethical evaluation of M&A in the wider context of knowledge of business ethics and corporate governance, and to develop and demonstrate a framework for evaluating the treatment of stakeholders during M&A. This contribution surveys the relevant governance, ethical and M&A literature. A new stakeholder framework is proposed and then applied to an important case study.

We found that M&A has important consequences for a variety of stakeholders; the strategy and finance literature has concentrated on top management and shareholders and neglected advisers, employees, customers, and suppliers. We also found that a stakeholder analysis framework can be adopted to evaluate each merger or takeover.

This chapter establishes a new framework for evaluating M&A beyond the conventional shareholder value approach; however only one case study is analyzed.

Managers and other stakeholders can use the proposed method to determine the likely impact of an M&A upon themselves and others and consequently weigh up the desirability of doing a deal in a wider context than currently.

The consequences for stakeholders following a merger or acquisition are often profound. The key protagonists ought to be more aware of these consequences which can be detrimental to stakeholders and the organization itself. The approach taken in this chapter provides a new method for both academics and practitioners to evaluate the impact of M&A.


Pages 209-217
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Cover of Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
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Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
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Emerald Publishing Limited
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