Table of contents(12 chapters)
Part 1 Relationship of Gender and Other Sociodemographics to Work Role
This chapter assesses how gender and disability status intersect to shape employment and earnings outcomes for working-age adults in the United States.
The research pools five years of data from the 2010–2015 Current Population Survey to compare employment and earnings outcomes for men and women with different types of physical and cognitive disabilities to those who specifically report work-limiting disabilities.
The findings show that people with different types of limitations, including those not specific to work, experienced large disparities in employment and earnings and these outcomes also varied for men and women. The multiplicative effects of gender and disability on labor market outcomes led to a hierarchy of disadvantage where women with cognitive or multiple disabilities experienced the lowest employment rates and earnings levels. However, within groups, disability presented the strongest negative effects for men, which created a smaller gender wage gap among people with disabilities.
This chapter provides quantitative evidence for the multiplicative effects of gender and disability status on employment and earnings. It further extends an intersectional framework by highlighting the gendered aspects of the ways in which different disabilities shape labor market inequalities. Considering multiple intersecting statuses demonstrates how the interaction between disability type and gender produce distinct labor market outcomes.
This research examines the effects of health, location, and other factors on receipt of wage income for young heads of households, aged 19 to 25, who lived in HUD-assisted housing and in other rental housing in 2011.
This chapter reports results of analyses of the 2011 American Housing Survey, merged with HUD administrative records, available as a public-use file at the U.S. Census Bureau.
Nineteen percent of young householders in assisted housing and 8% in other rental housing reported less than good health or a disability. Nearly two-thirds of young householders in assisted housing reported receipt of earned income. For respondents in assisted housing who reported good health and no disabilities, logistic regression models suggest that educational attainment beyond a high school diploma, more than one adult in the household, and living in metropolitan areas in the Midwest or West census regions were positively and statistically significant for receipt of earned income. For respondents in both assisted and other rental housing who reported less than good health and/or disabilities, residence in assisted housing or educational attainment beyond a high school diploma were positively associated with receipt of earned income, while residence in the metropolitan South lowered the odds of receipt of earned income.
Success of self-sufficiency programs will depend on accommodating the imperatives created by health, disability, and structural impediments created by a market economy.
This is the first analysis of health/disability and other barriers to paid employment that accurately identifies a nationally representative sample of young Millennials in HUD-assisted and other rental housing.
To investigate the extent to which disability discourages an individual from going on the job market, using data from an Italian survey.
We use an extended definition of labour force participation based on being employed or currently seeking work even if the persons declare themselves as housewives, students, retired or in any other condition otherwise. We use probit, sequential and multinomial logit models for analysing labour force participation and outcomes. We distinguish between the impact of disability in its strict sense and chronic illness explaining the difference.
In all variants we find that chronic illness is a stronger deterrent for labour force participation than disability. Women are more discouraged compared to men. Intellectual disability is the strongest barrier and hearing the least influential. In a sequential decision-making process, we find that disability affects both labour force participation decision and the ability to be employed but not so much the choice between part-time and full-time.
Policies providing tailored solutions for improved access to education and health care for disabled persons will enhance their work opportunities.
Data set is cross-sectional and characterised by attrition. It would be interesting to compare results with a longitudinal and more representative data set.
We have a unique data set from a survey which was specifically targeted at people who were identified as disabled in a previous survey. The Italian context is also special due to its high legal employment quotas and noncompliance sanctions.
Part 2 Disability Inclusion Strategies and Interventions
The purpose of this research is to investigate the process of development and implementation of strategies to promote diversity and inclusion of persons with disabilities in the workplace within Netcare (the largest private hospital group) in South Africa.
A single case study methodology is used to document best practices developed at Netcare for the integration of persons with disabilities in the workplace.
The case study demonstrates that integrating people with disabilities in the workplace is a complex process that requires bringing together disability theory/model and organizational change models. Disability integration within Netcare is an ongoing process with positive gains and gaps that can be leveraged to improve the process. Nonetheless, significant improvements in the number of persons with disability integrated at work as well as a good retention rate in the skills development program have been realized.
The documentation of practice based initiatives such as those developed by Netcare is useful for future cross-organizational and cross-context comparative studies. This will ultimately redirect policy and research agendas from the deficit analysis approach towards a more positive inquiry based upon practical and workable solutions.
The treatment of disability as a silo identity does not provide full appreciation of the multiple intersecting identities that interlock to position some persons with disabilities in positions of privilege and marginalization simultaneously.
This chapter reveals the importance of situating disability mainstreaming within a broader organizational transformation strategy. Legislating social and organizational transformation issues is necessary but insufficient to produce the desired social change. This research highlights the value of inculcating transformative leadership culture and building leadership accountability to realize the desired social and organizational change.
The purpose of this chapter is to survey and synthesis the literature on: (1) myths and misinformation about persons with disabilities that create attitudinal barriers to employment, (2) best practices in employing persons with disabilities, (3) the business case for hiring persons with disabilities and (4) corporate social responsibility and disability, in order to distill a model for changing corporate culture for successfully integrating employees with disabilities into an organizations workforce.
An extensive review of the above mentioned literature is synthesized and distilled into a model.
The review indicates a number of best practices to be implemented in order to successfully integrate employees with disabilities into the workforce. These factors have been synthesized into a model to guide employers in affecting corporate cultural change to address the integration of person with disabilities into the organization.
A systematic approach to integration of employees with disabilities, informed by the significant business logic for doing so.
The chapter provides an extensive survey of the literature on disability employment and highlights attitudinal barriers to employing persons with disabilities, the business case and social responsibility case for employing persons with disabilities, the best practices for success and synthesizes these factors into an original model to guide business in cultural change making.
Many youth with a disability would like to work but encounter challenges finding employment. Vocational interventions can help youth with disabilities gain employment skills and jobs. In this chapter, we assess: (1) how vocational programs for youth with physical disabilities influence employment-related skills and outcomes; and (2) the common components of vocational programs for these youth.
Our research team conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature with six major databases: Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Embase. Publications selected for inclusion met the following criteria: (1) peer-reviewed journal article, dissertation, or conference paper, published between 1990 and January 2014; (2) addresses vocational program or intervention for youth with physical disabilities; and (3) sample includes at least 50% youth (aged 15–25) with an acquired or congenital physical disability.
Of the 4,588 studies identified in our search, 8 met the inclusion criteria. In six of the studies, the majority of participants gained paid or unpaid employment after participating in a vocational program. Five studies showed improved knowledge and perceptions of employment. Most studies showed improvements in at least one vocational outcome such as knowledge about job searching, job interviews, advocating for workplace adaptations, and how to access services and supports. Common intervention components included: experiential learning, mentorship, and family involvement. Most programs took place in the community or rehabilitation centers that varied in length and were delivered by a variety of professionals. Most programs had a combination of group and individual components.
There is some evidence to suggest that vocational programs can influence employment outcomes for youth with physical disabilities. However, further research is needed with more rigorous and longitudinal designs.
Part 3 Work Role and Well-Being
People with Physical Disabilities, Work, and Well-being: The Importance of Autonomous and Creative Work
Motivated by research linking job autonomy and job creativity with psychological well-being, this study examines how these work characteristics influence well-being among people with and without physical disabilities, utilizing both a categorical and continuous measure of disability.
Data were drawn from two waves of a community study in Miami-Dade County, Florida, of 1,473 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether job autonomy and job creativity mediate the associations between the indicators of physical disability considered and depressive symptoms and whether these associations varied by gender.
Controlling for the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, both job autonomy and job creativity significantly influence the association between physical disability and depressive symptoms regardless of the measure of disability used. The effects of job autonomy were significantly greater for women than men in the context of greater functional limitation.
The findings highlight the need to further consider the work characteristics of employed people with disabilities. They also demonstrate that the conceptualization and measurement of physical disability has important research implications.
The Social Model of Disability, which views social and economic barriers rather than individual bodily differences as the main sources of disadvantage faced by people living with impairments, has gained considerable traction in the literatures of both disability studies and the sociology of disability over the past several decades. Despite this success, however, concern has been expressed that there is a dearth of empirical evidence to back Social Model claims that people with disabilities are not emotionally distressed by their bodily differences or functional limitations, but rather by the layers of social and economic disadvantage imposed on top of their impairments.
Using results of a community survey in a small town in Florida, we examine the degree to which workforce participation and other social and economic disadvantages mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and the presence of functional impairments or self-described disability identity.
We find that study participants who report functional impairments or identify as disabled report lower levels of subjective well-being than participants who do not. Findings also suggest, however, that these differences in subjective well-being can be explained by lack of workforce participation and other aspects of social inclusion and economic disadvantages that are associated with functional impairment and disability identity. Results indicate that work is one, but not the only, important aspect of community participation that mediates between disability experience and well-being. Results also problematize the conflation of functional impairment and disability identity.
Findings point to a need for future qualitative and quantitative research to address differences between functional impairment status and disability identity and to evaluate the relative importance of work and other forms of social inclusion and access to economic recourses to the well-being of people living with impairments and disability.
Findings of this study provide empirical support for, but also add complexity to, the Social Model perspective. They can be used to provide guidance to community leaders in terms of ways in which the lives of residents with disabilities might be improved.
Part 4 The Future of Work
To identify likely trends in American society and the economy and discuss their implications for the inclusion of people with disabilities in the paid workforce.
An overview of recent and likely future trends relevant to the workforce participation of Americans with disabilities.
While some trends in policy, technology, and culture are likely to promote wider participation by individuals with disabilities in paid employment, other factors in the emerging economy, labor markets, and workplaces may constrain such participation.
Uncertainty over future changes does not allow accurate forecasting of labor market trends for people with disabilities.
Many previous analyses have focused on developments within single arenas such as communications or transportation technology that might enable people with disabilities to participate more easily in paid employment. Our essay suggests the relevance of multiple contextual factors in shaping labor markets for potential workers with disabilities, but also identifies some likely constraints in expanding employment opportunities for people with disabilities.