Advances in Management Accounting: Volume 25

Cover of Advances in Management Accounting

Table of contents

(18 chapters)
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Introduction

Pages xvii-xx
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Purpose

Participative budgeting is one of the most intensively researched budgeting variables in management accounting. Research has stalled, however. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate further research by providing an overview of antecedents of participative budgeting and suggesting ways to build upon extant research.

Methodology/approach

We assess 22 studies published prior to 2011 that offer statistical insights into why organizations use participative budgeting by theorizing and modeling it as a dependent variable.

Findings

This work answers two research questions regarding why organizations use participative budgeting: (a) Which antecedents of participative budgeting have been analyzed so far? (b) Which causal-model forms are used in extant research regarding the antecedents of participative budgeting?

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed overview of empirical studies and respective findings aiming to explain why organizations use participative budgeting. Many prior studies have measured the association between contextual antecedents and participative budgeting. However, from a theoretical perspective, objectives of employees and supervisors are often used to explain the relation. Based on our literature review, we propose that all objectives identified so far intervene in the relationship between context and use of participative budgeting and also further detail these objectives. Consequently, our review analyzes the status quo of research on why organizations use participative budgeting and adds additional suggestions of underlying causal processes that can be tested in future studies.

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Purpose

This paper seeks to advance the understanding of the relevance of management accounting (MA) as a profession by examining societal role expectations of MA professionals in Australia.

Methodology/approach

The study presented in this paper is based on a questionnaire survey.

Findings

Findings of the study show that Australian MA professionals are expected to have skills in cost management, corporate social responsibility, carbon accounting, risk management, business analysis, corporate governance, and asset valuations. The demand of MA professionals exceeded the pool of MA talents in Australia. The role expectations of MA professionals from different stakeholder groups are fairly consistent.

Social implications

The study adds to the immigration institution discussion by demonstrating that there are inadequate professionals in Australia with the skills and experience in MA to meet the projected demand. Australia has very little option but to fill the supply-side shortfall in the short-term with overseas MA professionals.

Originality/value

The study adds to the literature of the societal relevance of MA by providing evidence of an increasing demand for MA skills in Australia.

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Purpose

This paper examines the effectiveness of the reliance on a leader’s reputation as an informal control tool to mitigate subordinates’ budgetary slack. In addition, it seeks to explain whether this relationship is mediated by subordinates’ truthfulness in revealing their private information.

Methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment was conducted involving 60 undergraduate business students who participated in the experiment. A 1 × 2 between-subjects design was employed for the experimental study. Each subject assumed the role of a production manager responsible for setting a budget target. The experimental task employed involved a simple decoding task adapted from Chow (1983).

Findings

The results of this study indicate that budgetary slack is lower when a leader’s reputation is favourable than when it is unfavourable. In addition, it is found that subordinates’ truthfulness in revealing private information fully mediates the relationship between a leader’s reputation and budgetary slack.

Originality/value

This paper extends the limited literature on the reliance of informal controls in mitigating budgetary slack by examining a leader’s reputation as an informal control. The findings of this study provide important implications for the design of effective management control systems.

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Purpose

This study extends the budgetary participation–performance/cultural effects literature by isolating and examining the moderating effect of one cultural dimension, power distance, on the budgetary participation–performance relationship. Isolating the impact of power distance is important to this literature because of the fact that participative budgeting remains a possibly underutilized management tool in high power distance countries.

Methodology/approach

We regroup our multinational sample of managers by power distance level, and employ multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) and a set of nonparametric bootstrap tests to triangulate our findings.

Findings

We find that the majority of our managers from three high power distance countries (Mexico, Korea, and China) score in the lower half of the power distance scale, that there is significant correlation between participation and performance in both the high and low power distance subsamples, but that the mechanisms connecting participation to performance are quite different. While job satisfaction plays a role in connecting budgetary participation and performance among low power distance managers, job relevant information alone connects budgetary participation and performance among their high power distance counterparts.

Originality/value

The primary contribution of our work is that we not only demonstrate that budget participation can improve the performance of subordinate managers in high power distance cultures, but also provide evidence of how and why this is plausible. First managers may not share the same high power distance tendencies of their countrymen, and second, the communication aspect of budget participation appears to be more important for increased performance among those with high power distance tendencies.

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Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess (a) the relationship between internal and external IS integration and their respective impacts on internal and external cost management strategies, (b) the relationship between internal and external cost management strategies, and (c) the effects of internal and external cost management strategies on profitability, controlling for firm size. Furthermore, this study investigates whether internal and external IS integrations produce direct significant effects on firm profitability or whether these relationships are established through cost management strategies.

Methodology/approach

The study uses survey data from a cross-section of 241 U.S. manufacturing firms. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings and implications

The results indicate that neither internal IS integration nor external IS integration has a direct significant impact on firm profitability. Rather, internal cost management strategy fully mediates the relationship between internal IS integration and profitability; similarly, the relationship between external IS integration and profitability is fully mediated through external cost management strategy. The results provide evidence that firms seeking profitability solely by investing in IS integration may not necessarily realize enhanced profitability; the firms must focus their attention on intervening processes, such as business strategy, in order to determine the profitability derived from IS integration.

Originality

As far as it can be ascertained, this study is the first to explore the impact of internal and external IS integration on firm profitability within the context of internal and external cost management strategies.

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Purpose

This paper examines how the determinants of bank performance and profitability were affected by the recent systemic banking crisis. We explore the contemporaneous determinants of U.S. regional banks’ performance and profitability before, during, and after the crisis years.

Methodology/approach

We analyze the determinants of three measures of profitability: return on assets, return on equity, and net interest margins.

Findings

We found evidence of lowered bank profitability, credit quality, and scale of lending activities well after the defined crisis period. This coincides with historical evidence that downturns associated with a financial crisis are more severe than downturns due to short-run fluctuations in the business cycle. Banks responded to the crisis by increasing their equity and liquidity levels.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to compare the determinants of bank profitability during the precrisis, crisis, and postcrisis periods. Our study extends previous work by using data from U.S. banks, adding coverage of the years since the banking crisis ended, and considering profitability determinants not previously explored in studies on the effects of the crisis.

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Purpose

This paper investigates the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act on top executive compensation and empirically examines the changes in relationship between top executive compensation and corporate performance expectations.

Methodology/approach

A theoretical framework is presented based on previous literature and testable hypotheses are proposed. The Pearson correlation is calculated to examine the inter-correlation among various measures of performance and compensation variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Regression was conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that in the pre-SOX period CEO compensation is strongly related to market-based performance measures while in the post-SOX period accounting-based performance measures showed a significant positive relationship with CEO compensation. The results confirm the impact of the SOX Act where it requires stronger internal control systems and reliable financial reporting. The board relies heavily on accounting-based performance measures in determining top executive compensation in the post-SOX period.

Originality/value

This paper shows the composition and level of CEO compensation have changed following the SOX Act and provide important evidence in explaining changes in the relationship between top executive compensation and firm performance expectation in the post-SOX period.

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Purpose

We examine the interactive effects of organizational culture and structure on the success of implementing activity-based costing (ABC) in Chinese manufacturing firms.

Methodology/approach

We applied contingency theory of management accounting and used a questionnaire survey of 106 respondents.

Findings

The results indicate that a formalized organizational structure significantly affects the success of implementing ABC. The organizational culture factors, outcome orientation and attention to detail, were significantly associated with the success of implementing ABC. Further, interactions between centralization and outcome orientation and formalization and innovation were associated with success in implementing ABC.

Research implications/limitations

While this study is constrained to Chinese manufacturing firms, its findings have ramifications for organizations in both developed and less-developed economies as the study demonstrated that organizational structure and culture interact with each other to affect the implementation success of a management accounting system.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first attempt to demonstrate the interactive effect of organizational culture and structure on the success of implementing ABC in organizations.

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Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the interactions between accounting and marketing activities in a Taiwanese telecommunication firm by demonstrating the dramatic impact that improved costing methods had on the firm’s customer portfolio management activities and consequently on the firm’s bottom line.

Methodology/approach

The paper presents a case study of a firm in the highly competitive telecommunications industry in Taiwan. The case study was constructed by interviewing key individuals within the organization over an extended period and supplementing those reports with an analysis of internal company documents.

Findings

The firm dramatically increased profitability through the integration of activity-based costing into their customer portfolio framework requiring marketing and accounting functions to work closely together. In this rapidly evolving market, cost allocation and customer portfolio management are indispensable. Identifying accurate costs and keeping key customers is a critical issue for the case company. While theoretically the approach is simple, in practice considerable hurdles needed to be overcome.

Originality/value

While considerable literature suggests that customer profitability drives the management of an organization’s customer portfolio, critical to the success of such an endeavor is the accurate calculation and allocation of costs to individual customers. As an interdisciplinary study, this paper provides insights for both accounting and marketing highlighting their reliance on each other in a sound firm. The results of this paper will serve as a supplement to past customer portfolio management research as well as a reference for any firm seeking to enhance their approach to portfolio management.

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Cover of Advances in Management Accounting
DOI
10.1108/S1474-7871201525
Publication date
2015-07-17
Book series
Advances in Management Accounting
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78441-650-8
Book series ISSN
1474-7871