The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality

Cover of The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality
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Synopsis

Table of contents

(34 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xix
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Introduction

Pages 1-15
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Part One: Technology in Tourism and Hospitality: Concepts and Applications

Abstract

The tourism and hospitality sector in twenty-first century becomes technology driven. Technology application in those sectors is strategic and demand driven. It facilitates tourism and hospitality marketing; destination promotion and imaging makes the services innovative, turns the interaction between industry and its consumers better than ever before, and enables the industry to cope with neo-competitive environment. Changes occur too in tourists’ demand, choices, and consumption patterns with the advent of e-mobility. Thus shifts within the paradigm of tourism and hospitality practices are perceived overtly. This chapter will study the expanse of technology application within those sectors, endeavour to develop a conceptual frame; and review the shifts and impacts that appear out of technology and those sectors interactions.

Part Two: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Service Promotion

Abstract

Hotels, the second largest component of online travel, have traditionally collected customer data through loyalty or customer relationship management programmes, compiling data about customers and using it to improve customer service and marketing efforts (Piccoli & O’Connor, 2003). Recent growth in online sales has given them access to even more granular and topical data. In particular technologies such as cookies, web bugs and beacons allow data on an individual’s browsing (e.g. the pages they have visited or the searches they have conducted) to be collected, consolidated and analysed to reveal detailed insights about customers which can subsequently be used for marketing purposes (Gilbert, 2008). While previous studies have investigated data collection by hotels, for the most part these have focussed on data surrendered voluntarily, with none addressing data collection through automated means. This chapter therefore attempts to fill this research gap, investigating whether and how hotel companies use such techniques, and whether consumers are adequately informed about this data collection process. Using the top 50 global hotel brands as a population, it explores both cookie disclosure and cookie practice by global hotel brands. The findings demonstrate that hotel brands, particularly those with their headquarters in the USA, are making extensive use of online monitoring technologies, typically for marketing purposes. In most cases, this data collection is happening surreptitiously, with the data protection notices that exist overtly long as well as crouched in highly technical language. Despite legislative changes that amplify the need to inform consumers about data collection, few hotel chains currently comply with the principles of informed consent, leaving many open to potential sanction.

Abstract

This study aims at identifying factors that influence Generation Y to choose Airbnb. The topic of this study is of great importance to understand the new trend of accommodation that is currently taking place in the hospitality industry worldwide known as Airbnb, its main target market is Generation Y. The popularity of Airbnb is on the rise and it has become the main competitor to the traditional hotel industry. This research has identified four factors – socio-economic, environmental, technological and media – that largely influence Generation Y while choosing Airbnb as their preferred accommodation. The research represents a framework to test the relationship between these factors and Generation Y decision to choose Airbnb. The data were collected in Malaysia, which is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Southeast Asia, from 200 respondents of different nationalities who intend to or have experienced staying with Airbnb. The data were collected through physical distribution of the questionnaire as well as through an online survey. SPSS version 21 was used to analyse the data. The findings suggest that the various factors identified have a significant influence on Generation Y decision while choosing Airbnb as their accommodation. This finding helps Airbnb maintain its target market by determining the key factors that influence Generation Y. The study also identifies technological and environmental factors that play an important role in the Generation Y decision to choose Airbnb.

Abstract

The concept of integrated marketing has been recognized as a key factor in marketing literature. Integrated marketing has changed from being a customer-centric system to a customer-facing process and is the past, present, and future of marketing. This type of marketing helps build brand awareness and equity in order for people to know, trust and ultimately choose your brand over competitors. It ensures that a message is communicated via different platforms according to a specific strategy. Integrated marketing has now become more important than ever before and focusing on the customer and their requirements involve a more integrated view with a big emphasis on digital, traditional and the physical world all working together. If practiced properly, integrated marketing approach is a healthy balance that can yield unlimited results beneficial to the organization’s goals. This approach should be practiced not only for one department but also all departments at hotel companies should be included.With that in mind, hotels have begun applying this notion as part of their everyday outreach. Specifically, marketing methods and strategies will vary from hotel to hotel and some significant factors to analyze and research prior to drafting are: property size, management structure, type of ownership and type of hotel (luxury, business, hi-tech, economy, etc.), area demographics and psychographics, as well as the dynamics of the internal and external environment. The need for studying integrated marketing in the hotel context has been emphasized in this research which revealed that marketing strategies are crucial for hotel companies to raise their brand value and equity. In this respect, it is stressed that strategies can shape a positive hotel brand perception within the customer’s mind.

Abstract

Online marketing become a trend in recent years focussed on online social networks, such social networks have rapidly grown in popularity; providing platforms to the marketing of products and services for the hospitality industry. Online marketing offers media technologies that can facilitate online functionality and monitoring perspectives wherein the data gathered can be used to develop their services for customer satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to study the impact of online marketing in travel agency. The data collected using google online survey and analysed using SPSS. The findings stressed that online marketing in travel agency has a positive relationship in increasing the sale of packages in travel agency. Travel agencies who use online marketing more frequently receive more correspondence. Therefore, travel agencies should use online marketing to generate more income. The value of time has also changed, making communication a process that has to be instant and simplified. Hence, travel agencies have to use online marketing and taking into account travellers feedbacks and complaints as well as delivering information about products and services in real time. Travel agencies have no chance to face their competitors if they don’t adopt online marketing strategies.

Part Three: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Branding Aspects

Abstract

Hums that express emotion, colors that mesmerize, symbols that draw, tastes that stimulate desire, shapes that tap, smells that rouse are becoming more dominant weapons with which companies realize an emotional connection with consumers. It all began in the twentieth century, at the moment when the machinery industry converted into service industry making their main element as people. Also, the consumers changed with the change in industry. With numerous products at their offering consumers are often undecided which product to choose. They expect the brand to know about them personally. Trying to improve relationships between consumers and products, marketing researchers concluded that the vital component in purchasing a product is an emotion. And the motivation behind emotional branding is to build a relation between a buyer and a product by evoking buyer’s emotion. Emotional intelligence plays a significant role in the process of offering a better service or product and can be effectively applied to tourist businesses. Tourism primarily comprised association between the operator, the tourist, the host, and the habitat. Since tourists have various destinations to visit it is essential that a destination attracts tourists with its own mark. Branding includes advertising the distinctive benefits which the tourist will undergo while visiting the destination, apart from the destination itself. Destination branding depends on reputation, quality, and specific attributes along with a vital component, emotion. Marketers normally desire that buyers experience the destination and many advertise their product or service as an experience through sounds, words, and visuals. The most important aspect is the experience traveler gets. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the fastest growing technologies and plays a major role in our daily life. It has changed our way of living and experiences. On the viewpoint of business outlook, it has touched each and every aspect of commerce. Since the beginning of internet, it is gaining strength day by day. Therefore, ICT, with significance on the internet, has swiftly adjusted to the tourism wherein novel opportunities for creative online advertising strategies are investigated. The radical changes in the society developing from the rise of ICT gave birth to novel consuming experiences which bind virtual and physical worlds, enhancing the participation of consumers both in the production and consumption processes. The chapter focuses on the role of ICT tools in emotional branding of tourist destinations.

Part Four: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Consumption Behavior

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Abstract

The discovery of internet technologies which is one of the most important developments of the twenty-first century has enabled individuals and institutions to overcome geographical and time constraints creating fundamental changes in communication. As a result, online communities have enabled people to meet the internet for various reasons such as seeking and sharing information, discuss community issues and ask questions; and online communities have also enabled businesses and consumers to connect with each other at any time. Especially the emergence of Internet-based social media technologies such as blogs, virtual communities, wikis, social networks, YouTube, Facebook and Instagram provides tourists to share their travel experiences. Information shared on social media sites is considered to be an important source of information that can help tourists’ travel plan and may even influence the travel decisions of potential tourists. In this context, the concept of social media in tourism businesses has been examined in the research. Within the framework of the research, it has been observed that social media has influenced the tourists’ behavior regarding travel motivations in the context of various motivations (having information about destinations, hotels, services of hotels, wondering about consumers’ experiences who were in touristic consumption before, etc.). It is also among other findings that social media has increased the overtourism crisis.

Part Five: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing Contexts

Abstract

With the development of the internet and mobile technology products, revolutions are experienced in consumer behavior. Consumers of the digital age browse the other users’ experiences and thoughts before purchasing a product or service. The use of social media (SM) platforms, which are getting stronger day by day, is also preferred by companies so as to convey any message to the target audiences. SM platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are the most outstanding and commonly used channels through which companies reach the target audiences. Sharing, especially including visual elements, supplies the highest level of interaction with the target audience. However, the internet bloggers/vloggers (video blogger), phenomena, influencers or SM marketers have a significant impact on the consumers of the digital age with their channels on the internet and their sharing in SM accounts. Tourism companies are not indifferent to the increasing importance of SM. Thus, they prefer working with SM influencers or bloggers by conveying the info and messages to their consumers to perceive their products and services. The influencers can spread the messages of the companies to wider consumers that companies might never be able to reach. For some years, the inclusion of influencers as part of a communication and marketing strategy has become more common and necessary for the promotion of a destination, airline or hotel group. This has been generated due to important factors such as trust, which has been the best ally of influencers: in most cases people give higher levels of credibility to what is said and done by instagramers, youtubers, bloggers, twitterers, etc. In recent years, it is one of the hottest new ways to affect potential guests’ buying decisions and create high-quality content without the excessive costs of most marketing efforts.

Abstract

Events are social, sporty, cultural, economic and environmental or entertainment-based. They are held on specific dates and times to share common experiences. Event tourism is becoming more and more important, bringing many benefits to the destinations. National and international events are organised to create alternative tourism products, increase the number of visitors, contribute to economic development and create competitive advantage, improve the infrastructure of the destination, increase the quality of life and provide socio-cultural development support. Direct or indirect communication is important for the target audience. Today, event organisers, who want to establish strong ties with the target audience, benefit from technology as it helps to promote the event and motivate people to participate in it. Along with the development of the Internet and the social media, communication and marketing implementations have also changed. High-budgeted events are becoming an important segment of tourism. The development of technology and widespread use of the Internet and social media have added a creative and indispensable competitive element to event marketing communication.

Part Six: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Destination Promotion

Abstract

Mobile games and ICT-based mixed reality tools offer significant opportunities for tourism. This chapter reviews the existing literature in both these areas, and presents a novel way of combining games and virtual reality into an interpretive tool. As a complex, threatened marine ecosystem, Australia’s Great Barrier Reef faces significant interpretive challenges, and almost no new interpretive tools have been developed over the last 30 years. Here, the authors unpack the stages and interdisciplinary approach required to design the tool and highlight how it might fit within the broader scope of ICT developments in tourism. We outline areas of future research, with a particular focus on how ICT might contribute to making nature-based tourism more sustainable, by finding fun, innovative ways to engage tourists in the conservation of some of our most iconic natural assets.

Abstract

This study aims to understand the development of Barcelos tourist destination, analyzing the progress of technology in local handcrafts. eTourism is a development alternative for many localities. These alternatives, when they have integrated tourist products and a defined geographical area, form a tourist destination. Focusing on tourism and its evolution, concepts and successes are investigated in the tourist market of Barcelos, proving the increase in the local economy. Before a qualitative study and through the direct observation and semi-structured interviews to some regional handcraftsmen, the forms of the innovation of the technology in the tourism of Barcelos are analyzed and what their contribution to the increase in the tourism in this territory. The study shows that, in this tourist destination, the development of handcrafts had a great social and economic impact, developing the offer and standing out in front of the tourist market. The study also concludes that the new Information and Communication Technologies’ (ICTs’) tools promote new skills, which consequently provide new opportunities as well as great challenges for all users. In the Barcelos handcraft, ICTs will revolutionize the promotion of this tourism offer, through the innovation of networks and the Internet, with all stakeholders, sharing information and knowledge of Barcelos products and services, thus increasing their fluency in tourism demand and developing the market in order to create a greater economic impact on the destination.

Abstract

Together with developing information and communication technologies and the increasing use of the Internet, there have been changes in the behaviors of the consumers during the purchasing decision process. Today’s consumers realize most of the decision process phases (such as gathering the information, determining the alternatives, evaluating the alternatives and even purchasing) from the Internet. Tourists who would like to purchase a holiday are also using the Internet during their holiday decision process. Today, websites which became an increasingly popular information source for the consumers play a significant role in potential visitors/tourists’ choices related to the destinations. Websites are used as a distribution and marketing tool in promotion and marketing of the tourism destinations. In this context, the design and content of the destination websites should be on a level which would attract and satisfy the tourists. In this chapter, the author will primarily discourse the visual and auditory factors which affect the perception of tourists and the application areas of these factors in website design. Then, the subjects such as the key features of the websites, information that should be provided on websites, the design of the website and their functions will be covered. The parameters that should be taken under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of a website and the evaluation criteria for the sites will also be included within the context of this chapter. In this chapter, the author will also discourse the benefits that the websites provide for destinations and the success factors of the destination websites. In the conclusion section of this chapter, the author will provide propositions related to the factors that should be taken under consideration in destination website design.

Abstract

Tourism industry has extensively embraced technologies to enhance operational competencies, service quality over and above customer satisfaction. This chapter presents Information Technologies as an innovative approach to promote tourism destination from Destination Management Organization’s (DMO’s) perspective. Precisely, attention has been given on how destination managers are applying different types of technological tools to promote their tourism business. In recent times, DMOs are implementing several promotional tools with the use of technology like embracing the mobile technology, Social Media, online ads, and building effective marketing strategies innovatively to compete with the cut-throat competition in travel trade. It also tried to provide an insight understanding of the changes in destination manager’s promotional strategies with the advancement of technologies. Based on primary research with destination managers and using the literature review, a collection of technology-based tools used by DMOs for the promotion of tourism at the destination level was identified and their individual impacts were measured to identify the effects on the profit generation. To accomplish the mentioned objectives, an explorative study based on basic demographic analysis along with Pearson correlation and Simple Linear Regression was conducted to examine the individual impacts of the different promotional tools used by DMOs.

Abstract

Tourism is a highly informative industry, thus the developments in technology and customer behavior that influence the level and availability of travel information are essential to understand (Indian Institute of Tourism & Travel Management, 2017). “Both on the demand side and on the supply side of tourism, blogging plays a major role, enabling tourists to communicate, track and respond on their opinions and service assessments directly with the visitors through multiple Internet platforms” (Kiráľová & Pavlíčeka, 2015). Through use of Internet as well as other information and communications technologies has paved the way for modern in the tourism industry. The significance of Blogs in the tourism market is huge. Ever more investigators are exploring the impact of blogging on tourism. The Blogging is going to be a major means of contact distributed throughout the country such as wildfires. The tourism industry has benefited most from the Internet, making blogging a crucial component of the marketing and preparation of the tourism industry (Sahoo & Mukunda, 2017). This section explores travel blogs as an expression of travel experience. Traveler views on prominent travel blog pages have been evaluated to obtain a sense of the experience expressed at the destination. Advancements technologies and a growing number of travel blogs make it easier for travel blog monitors to evaluate their service quality as a cost-effective method, and enhance the experience of the traveler (Pan, MacLaurin, & Crotts, 2007).

Part Seven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Effects and Changes

Abstract

Information technology (IT) has become a strategic weapon on tourism products’ identification, presentation, dissemination and getting a sustainable competitive advantage. Tourism management is the most important candidate for using IT with the need for gathering information in large quantities and diffusion of tourism management. The heterogeneous nature of these businesses means that information-communication Technologies’ uses change from sector to sector and from management to management in the tourism sector. The development of IT has created new application areas for tourism industry managers especially in efficient cooperation and provided tools for real globalization, IT is unexpectedly part of tourism management because of information creation processing and transmission which are important in daily activities. Therefore, both rapid development of tourism demand and tourism supply have become a compulsory partner of IT; and for this reason, IT plays an important role in the tourism marketing, distribution, promotion, and coordination. Due to this importance; the impact of IT on tourism sector is valued to be investigated. This chapter stresses that IT’s uses play an efficient role in choosing the management on behalf of the consumer. Within this context, this chapter composes of the information society; IT development and tourism; the usage of IT on travel, hospitality, tourism sector, its challenges, and advantages. This chapter mostly emphasizes on these subjects that will be examined deeply.

Abstract

The tourism industry is known to be both famous and infamous in a way that there is a blurred line between how much tourism is sustainable and how much it is not. However, there is no denying of the fact that the industry is in need of innovative and upgraded mechanisms to ensure sustainability. Technology, on the other hand, is making great strides in providing support to ensure sustainable development across various sectors. Taking cues from the existing work, this chapter investigates the various facets of technology in imbibing sustainability, especially in the tourism sector, and proposes a framework for technology-led sustainable tourism development process. The chapter concludes that both technology and sustainable development concept share the common principles of being holistic, futuristic and interrelated (integrated). Therefore, technology can be a proper solution to develop a sustainable model.

Abstract

There has been a massive, revolutionary change over the past two decades in the travel and tourism industry. Mobile technology offers privileges to consumers in order to identify, customize and purchase tourism products and support the globalization of the industry by providing tools for developing, managing and distributing beneficiaries worldwide. These diligent advancements in mobile technology have made it extremely easy for everyone to know instantly as much about the world as they want. The use of smartphones, tablets and mobile devices has empowered global tourists with more flexibility, options and freedom to explore places than ever before. For that reason, mobile technology is a perfect fit for travel and tourism that plays an important role in massive cultural shift of consumer behaviour. All over the world, businesses are struggling to adapt to that incredible spread and impact of mobile technology and in the future, the technology will go on developing and adapting, as well. As mobile technology has been evolving rapidly and spreading across multiple tourism sectors, it is pivotal to take into account its role in creating innovative experiences for consumers and fostering a sustainable competitive advantage for suppliers in the tourism industry. Though mobile evolution has contributed to enhancing the travel factor at large, not much is known about how it has affected the tourism development. Finding this information is crucial for a deeper understanding of how consumers are using tourism-related mobile technology before, during and after their trip. It could provide meaningful perceptions to meet their expectations and to enhance their travel experiences. Therefore, this chapter aims to identify the potential of mobile technology in several businesses in the tourism sector providing guidance to understanding its role to enhance value creation in the future.

Part Eight: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Smart City Involvement

Abstract

Rapid development of IT and communication technologies resulted in the “Smart” concept, which of late has become quite popular. The smart concept signifies the integration of organizational networks and smart features that enrich the ecosystem, facilitate daily activities for all stakeholders, and for automatization. Smart concept was discussed as a complicated technological infrastructure in urban areas intended to promote economic, social and environmental welfare. The latest technological developments gave rise to the concepts of smart planet, smart city and smart destination that have become important in recent years. Technological innovations have had a big influence on the development of the tourism industry. Smart concept is conceptualized as smart tourism for tourism sector. Smart Tourism generally has a positive effect on the rapid change of information and technology and on the tourism sector, tourism activities and increase in customer satisfaction. In this chapter, the concept of Smart and its smart technologies are explained and information about its reflections on the tourism sector and smart tourism destinations are discussed.

Part Nine: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Marketing and Profitability

Abstract

The concept of information and communication technology (ICT) has extensively used among travel and hospitality organization in the contemporary world. The present study discovers tourism and hospitality business reactions toward ICT-based marketing usage and investigates its relationship with functional competencies and profitability among tourism and hospitality business organizations in India. With a quantitative approach, the study found an extensive usage of ICT-based marketing in tourism and hospitality organizations was noted from descriptive tables. The application of regression analysis indicated positive and significant impact of ICT-based marketing on functional competencies and profitability of tourism and hospitality organizations in India. A positive and significant correlation was also noted among these two due to adoption of ICT-based marketing. This study provides insights to formulate comprehensive ICT-based marketing strategies to fulfill growing customer needs.

Part Ten: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Niche Tourism

Abstract

In this chapter, the concept, use, evolution, problems and implications of tracking techniques in tourism and hospitality research are addressed. First, the concept of tracking is defined and its applications in different sciences and, particularly, in tourism and hospitality are explained. Then, the past, present and uncertain future of tracking techniques is briefly discussed, including the evolution of the different types of tools used to track the places visited by tourists. Afterward, this chapter continues pointing to the limitations of tracking tools and it points to combining different tracking techniques as a key element to gather more accurate data from tourists. Last, this chapter focuses on the implications of data gathered through tracking tools for destination and industry managers. This chapter may serve to students interested in understanding how the generation of tourism statistics is expected to evolve during next years and to practitioners pretending to improve the management of tourism destinations or enterprises.

Abstract

This chapter focusses on the importance of using technology in tourism. This chapter also comprehensively highlights technologies that are impacting the tourism industry as well as the constraints the industry is facing. Many research studies have been conducted which outline the contributions and importance of technology in tourism in general. In recent years, various research studies, ranging from tourism management to geography, have increasingly explored the opportunities to use cutting-edge information and communication technologies (ICTs), implemented at different scales, in order to improve tourists’ experiences. Among several technology-driven solutions, augmented reality (AR) is usually regarded as a useful tool for tourism. AR has become an area of significant interest and investment in recent times. The present study focusses on case studies where AR-based smart tourism applications have been developed. In tourist destinations, visitors exhibit a great interest in learning while travelling. Curiosity plays a significant role for visitors buying trips for their families and they are willing to pay slightly more for a unique experience. The findings offer several contributions to the literature by providing new theoretical insights into the intersection of AR and tourism in Italian heritage sites, especially in Sicily.

Abstract

The lesser-known tourist destinations thanks to new technologies are experiencing a period of growth and development. Sharing economy has given new opportunities to smaller places, in particular the villages that are living a difficult period due to depopulation. The revival of small villages has been supported by the spread of good practices which, with the help of the Internet and the sharing economy, has led to a greater social, economic and tourist growth. The opportunities to emerge on the international market have increased thanks to the introduction of web and social networks. Information and communications technologies (ICTs) help overcome accessibility and isolation problems in some places. Sharing resources and increasingly democratic communication channels have been the basis for the creation of a new economy based on authenticity, unique experiences and consequently a slow tourism linked to rural villages. The aim of this research is to show how the sharing economy is important for the development of little villages; technologies in particular help the less-known destinations to grow up economically and socially. This research analyzes the concept of authenticity, very important for the experiential tourism and the sustainability considered the key for a good development of places. Then it considered the idea of technologies related to the development of little villages, with some example of good practice from Italy.

Abstract

It is no longer enough to have a technology base to meet customer needs. The competitiveness of the tourism sector is ensured through the innovation capacity that companies can achieve, either through innovation associated with services or through services. The relationship between tourism innovation and business competitiveness in the tourism sector must consider emerging and innovative technologies that appear daily in society. In this context, the information systems applied to tourism must take into consideration the various sectors of activity: accommodation, travel agencies, restaurants and gastronomy, tourist entertainment, transport, among others. In addition to tourism management information system, it must integrate an innovation mechanism, which should be based on the definition of an appropriate business model. The business model that ensures innovation has to integrate design, production, service, and marketing through a new customer relationship, therefore technology must be able to meet the demands inherent in this new model. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate how the concept of Industry 4.0 can affect the development of tourism in Portugal. In this context, it is relevant for tourism that all companies consider the technological drivers of change associated with the concept of Industry 4.0, constituting a technological basis for leveraging tourism companies to a technological environment called ‘Tourism 4.0’.

Abstract

Literary tourism is a developing niche of cultural tourism, which is important to study and for which it is important to define paths. In this chapter, the author makes a framework of literary tourism as a niche, the author presents its definition and a listing of its main products and experiences. The author also sees some examples of resources and products that link literature to digital technologies, checking to what extent they are or may be at the service of the development of literary tourism. After the presentation of these cases, we position our proposal to articulate literary tourism and digital technologies, based on the possibility of improving the visitor’s experience and increasing the attractiveness of literary places with digital applications.

Abstract

Competitiveness of cities forces the city and public sector representatives to invent new methods of management and use the innovative thinking. Success of cities, based on Etzkowitz and Leyedesdorff (2000), has to take into account new strategies of co-operation of the academic institutions with the local authorities, entrepreneurs (in our case in tourism business) and new graduates focused on high-tech industries and start-up businesses. This trend is based on the principles of New Economic Geography (Krugman, 1994; Porter, 1998) and the new Theory of Growth (Romer, 1990), which enforce the importance of knowledge capital and smart technologies. Hjalager (2002) supported the idea of the importance of the institutional innovations and Ward (1998) mentioned that universities and research institutes are key entities to promote smart technologies and decisions in a city (Triple Helix concept). The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the results of research conducted in Waterloo, Canada, Ontario, which belongs to the Ontario Technological Triangle. Waterloo is a city of two universities, Waterloo University and Wilfred Laurier University. The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the results of research conducted in Waterloo, Canada, Ontario, which was focused on the competitiveness growth through the implementation of the smart management systems (Triple Helix Model) in the city marketing and governance. Some of these approaches influenced also tourism business due to multiplication effect and the growing competitiveness is a source of a continual growth of students, visitors and entrepreneurs to the city and the region.

Abstract

Competitiveness and contemporary changes in our society and modern technologies force countries to apply the innovative processes in their managerial and marketing activities. Cities as the places of life of human beings and their coexistence with modern technologies could benefit from the implementation of place marketing and branding strategies and from the accepting of new approach to their consumers, predominantly citizens, but also local and international businesses and visitors. This process should be governed by the active and effective co-operation of public authorities, which means a symbiosis of multilateral parties aiming at one goal – a successful and satisfied city users and a destination with modern and effective leadership. For this reason, not only a concept of the effective co-operation is crucial, but also a concept of modern technologies application, for instance a model of smart city or the co-creation principles applied in the fulfilment of service provision to citizens. In order to succeed in competitiveness, it is important to support in destinations the application of the innovative development and sound managerial strategies. This chapter explored a strategy applied in city marketing of one city in Slovakia, Banska Bystrica. The methods of comparison and benchmarking to propose the innovative approach to marketing have been applied. In primary and secondary researches, mixed methods have been used, a combination of quantitative methods (demand side perspective) and the application of the importance–performance analysis and qualitative methods (interviews with the representatives of municipalities, private sector and non-governmental sector representatives, e.g., supply side perspective).

Abstract

It is an unfortunate truth that hotel industries are sometimes behind the curve when it comes to adopting the latest technology. In the competitive environment of the hotel industry, a sophisticated portfolio of information systems applications and high-quality information technology infrastructure play a key role in hotel performance in the world. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Technological, Organizational, and Environmental factors and business benefits of cloud computing adoption on the hotel sectors’ competitive capabilities. Previous studies in Asian countries have shown that adoption of cloud computing is significantly beneficial in hotel businesses. Having that this research study sough to explain the impact of cloud computing adoption using security concerns, top management support, cost saving, and competitive pressure relative advantages. The study was conducted among randomly selected 30 star graded hotels in Sri Lanka. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among managerial and ICT professionals who were capable of making ICT decisions. The results of the data analysis revealed that cloud computing adoption level is still low among star hotels in Sri Lanka and Security Concerns, Top Management Support, Cost Saving, Competitive Pressure, and Relative Advantages are having significant impact on cloud computing adoption in the hotel sector in Sri Lanka.

Abstract

The emergence of e-HRM in tourism and hospitality industry in Sinai of Egypt depicts the challenges in competency, performance and compensation associated with progressing the human resource function towards handling the effective managerial decisions. The emergence leads to a variety of investment vehicles evolving a competitive and user friendly tool which is available for anytime, anywhere access. Thus, the delicate situations of dependency on person-based decision-making, which is highly pervasive on memory and mood consistencies for making judgements are regularised and facilitated by data. Thus, puzzles and mathematical reliance on human-based sincerities are delinked and merged to machine-based delivery, subjected to auditing at varied levels of inputs and alerts. Many intuitive, heuristics and biases that deviate the rationalisation of decision-making process are leveraged and captured continuously so that various possibilities can be formed as an algorithm at later stages. These determine the tendency to bond stronger on technology reliability. The competitiveness among decision-makers to tackle situation is completely matched to performance dependent and competency of the resources applied to the activity of deployment. The evolved system is through the stakeholders’ inputs through ‘one-to-one’, ‘one-to-many’ and ‘many-to-one’ of the tour management team, with vital inclusive of the guest responses which make it as an essential connect in the genesis for understanding the market segment for the content knowledge on the guests’ profile, behaviour and preferences expected. Sinai of Egypt is a nice place for tourism, it’s a paradise in offering, with places such as Sharm El Sheikh, Naama Bay, Ras Mohammed National Park, Mount Sinai, St Catherine’s Monastery and Resorts of Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba for travellers to choose a wide range of plush five-star resorts at relatively low prices, with good weather, beyond sea-and-sand. The News media Harteez in the year 2019 had quoted that according to the Egyptian Tourism Ministry, the tourism industry had brought in $12 billion in 2018, which a mere half during the previous year. This potential can be harnessed with the adorable use of technology which can help this industry to reach unlimited geography and bring travel and leisure customers to enjoy the beauty of the creator.

Abstract

India is the place of many religions, customs and traditions. Religious events are regularly an exceptional tourist opportunity, and there are several religious events that take place in India throughout the year. These events not only focus on the importance of people engaging in religious events and having spiritual experience but also act as a promotional opportunity for any country. With changing times, these religious places have become a site for tourism; relatively a mere pilgrimage and digital marketing is especially useful in promoting these events and places to new potential attendees as well. Therefore, this research stresses upon the small- and medium-sized religious events that take place in various regions of India and the importance of digital marketing in sustaining and promoting the event tourism.

Part Eleven: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Economic Development

Abstract

The intervention of information communication technology and technological advancements are rapidly growing and providing means of improvisations to every industry. The technological advancements have offered multifold opportunities to the businesses and other stakeholders for developing it multidimensionality. This chapter has explored the aspects of the possible economic developments because of technological developments of the industry. Overall, 167 papers have been found and analysed. Probably, this is the first paper of its type, which has investigated the relationship between technology, tourism, and economic development using the bibliometric analysis. This chapter also identifies the five important clusters of keywords for future researchers on this theme of research.

Part Twelve: Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: The Future

Abstract

Several tourism destinations are using social media (SM) marketing more than traditional marketing in the developed countries. The increasing use of technology has replaced the role of travel intermediary. Most of the travellers in developed countries are no longer using travel agencies for their services. Many bookings are done online using electronic devices either at office or home. It is, therefore, a fact that SM has come to stay. However, the situation is contrary to some developing countries due to several reasons; for example, unreliable source of energy, communication, poor infrastructure and lack of competition. Most of developing countries depend on tourists from developed nations to consume their tourism destination products. Moreover, the modern travellers are no longer travelling in the dark. They want to have prior knowledge about their destinations. They check online product offerings, certification and destination labels. A modern tourist is becoming a more responsible traveller. SM plays a big role by providing information about many tourism destinations. Nevertheless, there are ongoing debates regarding the usefulness, future and survival of traditional travel agents despite the fact that there are threats from online travel agents and the increasing use of SM. This chapter is a case study of Malawi as a tourist destination. It critically discusses and analyses the impact of SM as a marketing tool. It also analyses the benefits and challenges of the travel agents, and finally confirms that there is a need to embrace technological change in travel and tourism industry in the developing nations.

Index

Pages 509-522
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Cover of The Emerald Handbook of ICT in Tourism and Hospitality
DOI
10.1108/9781839826887
Publication date
2020-11-30
Editors
ISBN
978-1-83982-689-4
eISBN
978-1-83982-688-7