Big Data Analytics and Intelligence: A Perspective for Health Care

Cover of Big Data Analytics and Intelligence: A Perspective for Health Care
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(17 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xviii
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Abstract

Big Data is one of the most promising area where it can be applied to make a change is health care. Healthcare analytics have the potential to reduce the treatment costs, forecast outbreaks of epidemics, avoid preventable diseases, and improve the quality of life. In general, the lifetime of human is increasing along world population, which poses new experiments to today’s treatment delivery methods. Health professionals are skillful of gathering enormous volumes of data and look for best approaches to use these numbers. Big data analytics has helped the healthcare area by providing personalized medicine and prescriptive analytics, medical risk interference and predictive analytics, computerized external and internal reporting of patient data, homogeneous medical terms and patient registries, and fragmented point solutions. The data generated level within healthcare systems is significant. This includes electronic health record data, imaging data, patient-generated data, etc. While widespread information in health care is now mostly electronic and fits under the big data as most is unstructured and difficult to use. The use of big data in health care has raised substantial ethical challenges ranging from risks for specific rights, privacy and autonomy, to transparency and trust.

Abstract

The rapid increase in analytics is playing an essential role in enlarging various practices related to the health sector. Big Data Analytics (BDA) provides multiple tools to store, maintain, and analyze large sets of data provided by different systems of health. It is essential to manage and analyze these data to get meaningful information. Pharmaceutical companies are accumulating their data in the medical databases, whereas the payers are digitalizing the records of patients. Biomedical research generates a significant amount of data. There has been a continuous improvement in the health sector for past decades. They have become more advanced by recording the patient’s data on the Internet of Things devices, Electronic Health Records efficiently. BD is undoubtedly going to enhance the productivity and performance of organizations in various fields. Still, there are several challenges associated with BD, such as storing, capturing, and analyzing data, and their subsequent application to a practical health sector.

Abstract

A detailed description will be provided of all the classification algorithms that have been widely used in the domain of medical science. The foundation will be laid by giving a comprehensive overview pertaining to the background and history of the classification algorithms. This will be followed by an extensive discussion regarding various techniques of classification algorithm in machine learning (ML) hence concluding with their relevant applications in data analysis in medical science and health care. To begin with, the initials of this chapter will deal with the basic fundamentals required for a profound understanding of the classification techniques in ML which will comprise of the underlying differences between Unsupervised and Supervised Learning followed by the basic terminologies of classification and its history. Further, it will include the types of classification algorithms ranging from linear classifiers like Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes to Nearest Neighbour, Support Vector Machine, Tree-based Classifiers, and Neural Networks, and their respective mathematics. Ensemble algorithms such as Majority Voting, Boosting, Bagging, Stacking will also be discussed at great length along with their relevant applications. Furthermore, this chapter will also incorporate comprehensive elucidation regarding the areas of application of such classification algorithms in the field of biomedicine and health care and their contribution to decision-making systems and predictive analysis. To conclude, this chapter will devote highly in the field of research and development as it will provide a thorough insight to the classification algorithms and their relevant applications used in the cases of the healthcare development sector.

Abstract

History teaches us that the glorious victory of mankind across the centuries was accomplished through the successful use of information. The gigantic progressions and rapid transformation of human societies have endorsed legitimacy of abundant data, multiple dynamic variables & critical complexities which reinforce the academia and researchers for understanding and pioneering into ‘Big Data Analytics (BDA)’. Health is one of the vibrant socio-economic variables which have correlations with other aspects of life, that is, education, poverty, income, etc. In fact, there are unending debates whether health can be a basic input for a holistic developmental process or it is the outcome of various developmental factors. BDAs are being used across various sectors of the economy. The developed nations have been yielding most feasible solutions using various forms of analysis of big data. Astronomical research has been using a large quantum of data for accomplishing various satellite projects, space technology, and numerous space missions for the astronaut. With the advent of fourth industrial revolution, the world community has been thriving toward a new age technological innovations that include artificial intelligence, machine learning, block chain technology, etc., which act a pivotal tool for BDAs. In the health sector, application of BDAs has been attempted and experimented in the developed nations which have resulted prolific and sustainable solutions to the most typical cumbersome problems. This chapter has demonstrated how BDAs can make progressive reforms in the Indian Health sector outlining the present status and emerging challenges.

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Abstract

The healthcare sector in India is witnessing phenomenal growth, such that by the year 2022, it will be a market worth trillions of INR. Increase in income levels, awareness regarding personal health, the occurrence of lifestyle diseases, better insurance policies, low-cost healthcare services, and the emergence of newer technologies like telemedicine are driving this sector to new heights. Abundant quantities of healthcare data are being accumulated each day, which is difficult to analyze using traditional statistical and analytical tools, calling for the application of Big Data Analytics in the healthcare sector. Through provision of evidence-based decision-making and actions across healthcare networks, Big Data Analytics equips the sector with the ability to analyze a wide variety of data. Big Data Analytics includes both predictive and descriptive analytics. At present, about half of the healthcare organizations have adopted an analytical approach to decision-making, while a quarter of these firms are experienced in its application. This implies the lack of understanding prevalent in healthcare sector toward the value and the managerial, economic, and strategic impact of Big Data Analytics. In this context, this chapter on “Predictive Analytics in Healthcare” discusses sources, areas of application, possible future areas, advantages and limitations of the application of predictive Big Data Analytics in healthcare.

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence are two leading technologies that bought revolution to each and every field of humans using in daily life by making everything smarter than ever. IoT leads to a network of things which creates a self-configuring network. Improving farm productivity is essential to meet the rapidly growing demand for food. In this chapter, the authors have introduced a smart greenhouse by integration of two leading technologies in the market (i.e., Machine Learning and IoT). In proposed model, several sensors are used for data collection and managing the environment of greenhouse. The idea is to propose an IoT and Machine Learning based smart nursery that helps in healthy growing and monitoring of the seed. The structure will be a dome-like structure for observation and isolation of an egg with various sensors like pressure, humidity, temperature, light, moisture, conductivity, air quality, etc. to monitor the nursery internal environment and maintain the control and flow of water and other minerals inside the nursery. The nursery will have a solar panel from which it stores the electricity generated from the sun, a small fan to control the flow of air and pressure. A camera will also be equipped inside the nursery that will use computer vision technology to monitor the health of the plant and will be trained on the past data to notify the user if the plant is diseased or need attention.

Abstract

Tremendous measure of data lakes with the exponential mounting rate is produced by the present healthcare sector. The information from differing sources like electronic wellbeing record, clinical information, streaming information from sensors, biomedical image data, biomedical signal information, lab data, and so on brand it substantial as well as mind-boggling as far as changing information positions, which have stressed the abilities of prevailing regular database frameworks in terms of scalability, storage of unstructured data, concurrency, and cost. Big data solutions step in the picture by harnessing these colossal, assorted, and multipart data indexes to accomplish progressively important and learned patterns. The reconciliation of multimodal information seeking after removing the relationship among the unstructured information types is a hotly debated issue these days. Big data energizes in triumphing the bits of knowledge from these immense expanses of information. Big data is a term which is required to take care of the issues of volume, velocity, and variety generally seated in the medicinal services data. This work plans to exhibit a survey of the writing of big data arrangements in the medicinal services part, the potential changes, challenges, and accessible stages and philosophies to execute enormous information investigation in the healthcare sector. The work categories the big healthcare data (BHD) applications in five broad categories, followed by a prolific review of each sphere, and also offers some practical available real-life applications of BHD solutions.

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In this chapter, an attempt has been made to develop a security-based hardware system using an 8-bit single-chip microcontroller in conjunction with some sensor technology and lighting and alarming actuators. The proposed system aims to ensure the security and privacy of a dedicated area in terms of unauthorized human intrusion, hazardous gas leakage, extreme prolonged temperature changes, atypical smoke or vapor content in space and abrupt drop in illumination. The proposed system is capable of detecting any type of physical intervention and hazardous anomalies in the environment of the reserved space. In order to define the operation of the system, programs written in C++ with the special rule of code structuring have been deployed on the microcontroller using the Arduino Integrated Development Environment. The system is like a small container, enclosing all the respective sensor modules, microcontroller board and open connections for actuators. The proposed system is easy to use hardware and does not demand any human intervention for its functioning and can be installed with almost no changes in the infrastructure.

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This chapter discussed the role of business intelligence (BI) in healthcare twofold strategic decision making of the organization and the stakeholders. The visualization techniques of data mining are applied for the early and correct diagnosis of the disease, patient’s satisfaction quotient and also helpful for the hospital to know their best commanders.

In this chapter, the usefulness of BI is shown at two levels: at doctor level and at hospital level. As a case study, a hospital is taken which deals with three different kinds of diseases: Breast Cancer, Diabetes, and Liver disorder. BI can be applied for taking better strategic decisions in the context of hospital and its department’s growth. At the doctor level, on the basis of various symptoms of the disease, the doctor can advise the suitable treatment to the patients. At the hospital level, the best department among all can be identified. Also, a patient’s type of admission, continued their treatments with the hospital, patient’s satisfaction quotient, etc., can be calculated. The authors have used different methods like Correlation matrix, decision tree, mosaic plots, etc., to conduct this analysis.

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In this chapter, the problem of facial palsy has been addressed. Facial palsy is a term used for disruption of facial muscles and could result in temporary or permanent damage of the facial nerve. Patients suffering from facial palsy have issues in doing normal day-to-day activities like eating, drinking, talking, and face psychosocial distress because of their physical appearance. To diagnose and treat facial palsy, the first step is to determine the level of facial paralysis that has affected the patient. This is the most important and challenging step. The research done here proposes how quantitative technology can be used to automate the process of diagnosing the degree of facial paralysis in a fast and efficient way.

Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancer in the world, BC risk has been there for women of the middle age also, it is the malignant tumor. However, identifying BC in the early stage will save most of the women’s life. As there is an advancement in the technology research used Machine Learning (ML) algorithm Random Forest for ranking the feature, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes (NB) supervised classifiers for selection of best optimized features and prediction of BC accuracy. The estimation of prediction accuracy has been done by using the dataset Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data from University of California Irvine (UCI) ML repository. To perform all these operation, Anaconda one of the open source distribution of Python has been used. The proposed work resulted in extemporize improvement in the NB and SVM classifier accuracy. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is estimated by using classification accuracy, confusion matrix, mean, standard deviation, variance, and root mean-squared error.

The experimental results shows that 70-30 data split will result in best accuracy. SVM acts as a feature optimizer of 12 best features with the result of 97.66% accuracy and improvement of 1.17% after feature reduction. NB results with feature optimizer 17 of best features with the result of 96.49% accuracy and improvement of 1.17% after feature reduction.

The study shows that proposal model works very effectively as compare to the existing models with respect to accuracy measures.

Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic disease and the major types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. On aging, people with diabetes tend to have long-term problems in hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, and nerves. Given the increasing number of complications in recent years, by 2040, 624 million people will have diabetes worldwide and l in 8 adults will have diabetes in the future. Machine learning (ML) is evolving rapidly, many aspects of medical learning use ML. In this study, tension-type headaches (TTH) were associated with diabetes using SPSS, Pearson correlation, and ANOVA tests. Data were collected from Delhi NCR Hospital. It contains 30 diabetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to correlate diabetes analysis from TTH and other diseases using the latest technologies to analyze the Internet of Things and Big Data and Stress Correlation (TTH) on human health. The authors used Pearson correlation to correlate study variables and see if there was any effect between them. There was an important relationship between the percent variable, the total number of individuals, the number of individuals, and the minimum variable. The age (field) of the number of individuals to one of the total number of individuals showed a strong correlation (1.000) with a significant value of p (1.000). Overall, cases of TTH increased with age in men and do not follow the pattern of change in diabetes with age, but in cases of TTH, patterns of headaches such as diabetes increase to age 60 and then tend to decrease.

Abstract

Recent research advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and neural networks are becoming essential tools for building a wide range of intelligent applications. Moreover, machine learning helps to automate analytical model building. Machine learning based frameworks and approaches allow making well-informed and intelligent choices for improving daily eating habits and extension of healthy lifestyle. This book chapter presents a new machine learning approach for meal classification and assessment of nutrients values based on weather conditions along with new and innovative ideas for further study and research on health care-related applications.

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This chapter discusses about the advancement in the field of telemedicine and how often the general public are using the services that are provide by the telehealth and telemedicine market. This chapter starts with the introduction of the medicine in the world, which were the earliest medical practice and how all that thing leads to the today’s telehealth market. This chapter also describes the models that are being used in today’s world, and how these models as implemented and how telemedicine services are implemented more efficiently. Telemedicine and telehealth market is growing day by day and a lot people are getting to know about it, but there is still some section of the society, specially the lower middle class and the people in the rural areas that do not have any access or knowledge about the concept of telehealth services.

Abstract

With the advent of Big Data, the ability to store and use the unprecedented amount of clinical information is now feasible via Electronic Health Records (EHRs). The massive collection of clinical data by health care systems and treatment canters can be productively used to perform predictive analytics on treatment plans to improve patient health outcomes. These massive data sets have stimulated opportunities to adapt computational algorithms to track and identify target areas for quality improvement in health care.

According to a report from Association of American Medical Colleges, there will be an alarming gap between demand and supply of health care work force in near future. The projections show that, by 2032 there is will be a shortfall of between 46,900 and 121,900 physicians in US (AAMC, 2019). Therefore, early prediction of health care risks is a demanding requirement to improve health care quality and reduce health care costs. Predictive analytics uses historical data and algorithms based on either statistics or machine learning to develop predictive models that capture important trends. These models have the ability to predict the likelihood of the future events. Predictive models developed using supervised machine learning approaches are commonly applied for various health care problems such as disease diagnosis, treatment selection, and treatment personalization.

This chapter provides an overview of various machine learning and statistical techniques for developing predictive models. Case examples from the extant literature are provided to illustrate the role of predictive modeling in health care research. Together with adaptation of these predictive modeling techniques with Big Data analytics underscores the need for standardization and transparency while recognizing the opportunities and challenges ahead.

Index

Pages 281-289
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Cover of Big Data Analytics and Intelligence: A Perspective for Health Care
DOI
10.1108/9781839090998
Publication date
2020-09-30
Editors
ISBN
978-1-83909-099-8
eISBN
978-1-83909-099-8