Table of contents(15 chapters)
Part 1: General Introduction of the Book
This first chapter of this book tends to bring into understanding the various definitions concepts, evolutions, characteristics and many more on smart cities. These are further explained across the other chapters of the book as to the roles and functionalities of smart cities in this modern world. This chapter starts with an introductory part that briefly describes what cities hold and the idea of inculcating smartness into it. Furthermore, various definitions were explicitly defined across other sections of the introduction. The objective of this book relates the reason and solution the book aims to offer into the construction industry as a system that is not only functional but also sustainable across various professionals of the construction industry. This chapter ends with concluding part that describes the totality of what have been discussed in the course of the chapter. The research book also contains reference for further reading.
Part 2: Concept of Smart Cities
The first chapter of this book has already introduced smart city concepts and definitions; the second part will further explain deeper how smart city comes into being and the frameworks that surround it. Firstly, history of city and smart city gives a detailed analogical insight on the transformation from city into smart one. The rate at which the transformation process is implemented depended mostly on how the citizens of the city understand the implementation of digitalisation concepts through the use of appropriate technologies into running and developing a city. Secondly, there are also further definitions on the subject especially as they related to the construction industry. Characteristics of smart cities are also discussed along with features that can really make a city smart. In conclusion, the chapter is well introduced and provisions were also made at the end in terms of bibliographies that will help in further understanding of the smart city concepts beings introduced.
The smart city process encompasses many features. The two chapters before this has succinctly introduced the concepts and some parts that relate to smart city. The process in implementation is dissected in this section of the book. It starts from the conceptualisation of the process to further definitions of the subject. Also, traits attributed to smart cities are explained in smart environment, economy, governance, living, people and mobility. Urbanisation brings along with it several features and terminologies. One of which is smartisation fused into the smart city process. The smartisation of the city system aim to bring developments in making the city wireless and developing smart families at the same time. Also, there are smart general administrations and improvement of social administrations, development of smart transportation, improvement of smart medicinal treatment, develop-ment of smart city administration, development of green city, and development of smart vacationer focus. Other smart city processes include the drivers, barriers, and benefits.
The theories and models of smart city make up the systemic approach that governs its readiness. This contains the in depth analysis of the concepts of the smart city as it relates to the environment as wells as the energy present. Several theories are modelled into the smart city system to guide its implementation and consideration among the construction professionals in the constitution industry. Subsequently, frameworks are not neglected in terms of their relationship between the outcome of the theories and models propounded and conceptual integration in human, technology and institution. Inferences are made from these theories and models, and thus decision-making are dependent on the visibility envisaged.
Part 3: Smart Cities Stakeholders
In defining smart city and its effects on the citizens, the ideas and generalisation of the team members that makes up the smart city team must be thoroughly considered. It is one thing to have the concepts and processes on ground on smart city, it is another to have qualified team members that can deliver such city within a targeted standard. Stakeholders, construction professionals, citizens, concerned individuals among all make up the smart city team members. These members can also be spread across disciplines in order to facilitate effectiveness in every activity designed. Activities such as dissecting characteristics, control and management of smart city are controlled by these team members as they seek for maximisation of output from the resources available.
When there is a cordial relationship among the members of the smart city team, there are bounds to be achievements and executions of projects within stipulated time of the budget allocated. The partnership in ideas and overall discipline will propel the activities involved in executing smart cities in the world. In identifying not just the definitions of smart city, the developmental aspect of the concept is considered across phases of construction as the industry strives towards elegance and advancement. However, exciting as it comes in benefits and enhancement in the quality of life, several problems have also been identified albeit opportunities are somewhat presented in the challenges when analysed thoroughly from the inception to completion. The interaction within team members across countries will pave way for collaborators into the system.
Part 4: Sustainable Development (SD)
The major goal when transforming a city to smart city is to achieve sustainability. Sustainable development (SD) has been talked over the years with several industries considering the principles attached. Also, for a functional smart city planning, considerations must be anchored on sustainability that can be achieved through digitalisation and advancement of technological tools. The contradictory discourse of sustainability in SD, contemporary challenges of the concept of SD, drivers of SD, innovation and SD, thinking about innovation and technology, how companies manage innovation, barriers to smart cities development and others highlight what to be discussed in this chapter.
Part 5: Smart Cities and Sustainable Development
People will continue to migrate from rural to urban areas. This always results in congestion in the civilised part where there is contention for the resources available. Policies have to be made and implemented in order to counter scarcity and redundancy as most urban cities tend to halt in growth when population is beyond controllable size. Smart cities come into the frame by alleviating the present condition of the places to that which is convenient for everybody. Quality of life, meanings of smart cities, quality of life of smart cities citizens are the priorities when implementing smart city concepts into sustainable development.
In the latest years of the twentieth century, information and communication technologies (ICT) and urbanisation are two major issues that are in egression. The progress in technology during the 1980s and 1990s majorly improved well-being in the urban centres. This encouraged development of urban centres, leading to the migration from rural areas to cities. This is with the motive that cities offer tonnes of opportunities in areas, such as social life, job, education, etc. Cities are the major pillars of economic and human activity. Furthermore, the demand for natural resources, energy and general resources for infrastructural developments are controlled by the nature and type of city. Therefore, it is expedient that urban centres strive to promote the sustainability of the environment, social unity and the standard of living of its inhabitants through effective support of economic competition and management of their developments. Therefore, in an effort to safeguard the health of the people and the condition of the earth from been ruined, the concept of ‘Smart City’ came into existence. In addition with the introduction of new technological concepts (majorly ICTs, the ‘Smart City’ concept has egresses as the pathway to accomplish more sustainable and efficient cities. This implies that such cities should not only accommodate the people with minimum health hazard but should be socially inclusive and economically beneficial to concerned stakeholders.
Part 6: Enhancing Smart Cities for Sustainable Development
Smart cities over the years is fast growing on people. Citizens and stakeholders that were defiant to its adoption are beginning to see the reasons for it. Due to one reason or the other, many of the stakeholders and the citizens were reluctant in seeing the vision in the smart city system. Some of these factors are expressed in the drivers and challenges faced in enhancing from a city to smart city. Along with these, measures and benefits that relate with smart city has helped in social and general awareness of what it represents and what stands to be gained if fully adopted. And this has helped in overall information available on smart city. The concluding part of the chapter gives a summary of the importance in addressing these drivers.
The enhancement of cities can be affirmed when there is a transformation in the functions it is used to perform to ones that are just experienced in all newness and effectiveness. A city enhanced in all smartness and dimensions can always perform better when quality of life is targeted during and after a designed project. These dimensions come in the form of smart economy, smart transportation, smart environment, smart individual, smart living and good governance. Other aspects of the chapter include cities and smart cities, formation of smart cities, idea of smart city and barriers to smart city development. All these work together to function together in understanding and maintaining a regulated smart city supply chain in the construction industry.
In discussing the developments attached to smart city in terms of how it affects life and the environment, several factors contribute one way or the other towards the development. Smart city development comes with its advantages that can be experienced within and outside the construction environment, the challenges faced in putting in place smart city are enormous in relation to the nature and type of smart city propounded. These challenges are discussed extensively in information technology (IT) infrastructure, security and privacy, big data management, cost, efficiency, availability and scalability, social adaption and application development. Solutions must be found to these challenges for the construction industry to be able to convince individuals concerned with giving directives and policies regarding city development.
This chapter discusses the involvement of procurement in smart city development. Procurement plays a vital role in the development of strategies in planning, and execution in the construction industry. This is further introduced into smart city to find the best possible methods of bringing the ideas behind smart city into realisation. The common procurement methods are explained along with their involvement in smart city. Common drawbacks to smart cities procurement and measures to challenges in the procurement of smart city are also explicitly explained in the chapter. Through an identified and accepted procurement method into smart city, the processes involved in executing smart city will be the ones with directions and proper planning.
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