Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century

Cover of Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century
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Table of contents

(13 chapters)

Prelims

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Abstract

This chapter elaborates on entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries and focuses on the optimization of entrepreneurial activities. Various scenarios are considered: independent functioning of the market, integration in the form of reorganization (mergers and acquisitions), integration in the form of clustering, and integration in the form of innovational networks and technological parks. The optimal structure of the integration processes and best-case scenarios for its implementation to accelerate the rate and increase the quality of economic growth are substantiated. The potential for uptake of integration processes in stimulating economic growth through entrepreneurship is determined by the level of institutionalization in an economy. In developed countries, all forms of company integration are characterized by the high level of institutionalization, which allows for their effective use for economic growth. Independent companies, mergers, and acquisitions restrain economic growth and reduce its quality, while clusters, technological parks, and innovational networks accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase its quality. In developing countries, integration processes in entrepreneurship have a different influence on economic growth and require further institutionalization.

Abstract

There has long been a prevailing view concerning North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), that the world’s most reclusive socialist state, in accordance with its “juche” (self-reliance) ideology,1 shuns capitalism, and discourages entrepreneurship and innovation, and feigns reform to further its nuclear ambitions including the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. Under its previous leaders, Kim Il Sung and his son, Kim Jong Il, the DPRK saw little need for and discouraged innovation in the financial sector, particularly that of Western origin. However, since coming to power in December 2011, its current leader, Kim Jong-Un, has placed a strong emphasis on entrepreneurship and innovation, in numerous sectors, including its financial system. Based on research and interviews conducted with international business and entrepreneurship experts that have trained North Koreans, and personal experience as an adjunct business faculty member in the DPRK, this research shows the recent developments including the role played by entrepreneurs in helping the DPRK achieve its goal of economic and technological transformation. The primary focus is on changes in the DPRK’s financial sector.

Abstract

Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book chapter aims to provide an overview on the role of exogenous factors (entrepreneurship education), contextual and environmental factors (perceived entrepreneurial motivators and barriers) in developing EIs and behavior among the university graduates. It also highlights the different strands of opinion and research on the role that formal entrepreneurship programs may (or may not) play in developing EI and action. This book chapter further provides some developments on the factors mentioned above among the different Asian countries while using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Since 1999 GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up, established business activities, and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses.

Abstract

This qualitative study researches the concept of entrepreneurship in an indigenous population by assessing the external and internal challenges entrepreneurs face, discusses the various types of support offered, and compiles recommendations for partners to understand the Diné entrepreneur. This research interviewed nine enrolled members of the Navajo Nation tribe who have either created businesses on the reservations, managed non-profits aimed at supporting entrepreneurs, or possessed a wealth of entrepreneurial experiences working both on or off the Navajo Nation Reservation. This text builds upon the themes of economic development, cultural-match, and indigenous sovereignty by analyzing the concept, action, and future of Diné entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Coffee producers typically sell raw coffee beans as the first step in a global value chain. Recently, groups of producers have formed coffee cooperatives that attempt to regain market power by integrating the other steps of the value chain. This study uses matching to estimate the effect of membership in one such cooperative on the household economy of indigenous coffee producers in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. It contributes to the literature by considering new determinants of participation and outcomes of interest. First, social capital at the individual and village level is correlated with cooperative membership more than other demographic factors. Second, cooperative members report an increase in the share of coffee sold and income from coffee sales but not in per-kilo price or total income. These two results reflect particular features of the Chiapas reality and the desires of the indigenous people the cooperative serves. Thus, they reiterate the importance for economic development projects to consider the context of their interventions.

Abstract

Microfinance, despite its mixed results in economic literature, continues to proliferate in many developing countries. This research project investigates the relationship between collectivism and microfinance. It analyzes the question: how does a collectivist culture and its norms influence the ways in which borrowers spend loaned funds and interact with microfinance institutions (MFIs)? The authors generate a theoretical model for how norms of informal redistribution affect borrowing decisions and use a robust dataset of all of the loans facilitated by Kiva, a global MFI, to compare microloan borrowing in countries with different cultures of collectivism. A case study of Senegal, a culturally collectivist country, includes surveys and detailed interviews of individuals and MFIs. The authors find that the strong social networks associated with collectivism are well adapted to the structures of many MFIs. However, the authors also uncover that some of the collectivist social norms, such as norms of informal redistribution, can deter individuals from using microfinance.

Abstract

The financing of entrepreneurship has seen marked changes over time and continues to evolve rapidly. From the traditional sequence of self-funding, Angel financing, the rigors of securing Venture Capital, and, for successful firms, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), the funding sequence has undergone substantial changes. Recent observations such as in the Wall Street Journal (November 05, 2018) suggest that many successful young firms (often tech companies) have continued to raise capital from private equity sources rather than in the public equity markets via IPOs. These additional fundraising efforts generally follow an extended period of business development and revenue generation wherein when many successful entrepreneurial firms that had proven large enough to go public stayed private (so called “unicorns”) because of the extent to which their funding requirements can in recent times flow from private sources. But today, there are many indications that some such firms (e.g. Uber, Lyft) are now seeing the advantages of going public, engaging in IPOs, which are often followed rapidly in very recent times by raising additional public share capital in a relatively short interval after the IPO.

Abstract

This chapter investigates how new technologies of encryption and cryptocurrencies enable entrepreneurial opportunities outside legality in the dark net. Since ventures on illicit dark net markets lack access to the legal system and to law enforcement agencies, they must rely on mechanisms for settling disputes with business partners without the involvement of mediating agencies. To this end, the presence of trust is decisive in coordinating cryptomarket activities. Hence, entrepreneurs on dark net markets utilize technology to gain trust, establishing new ways of drug dealing, with disruptive potential for classic illicit drug markets. Against this background, this chapter shows how technological change affects the identity of entrepreneurs on the dark net. Special emphasis is given to the entrepreneurs’ self-concept, their consumer service, knowledge and capabilities and how, in a holistic view, this development innovates the traditional way of dealing illicit drugs.

Abstract

Data has become one of the most significant instruments in e-commerce innovation. Benefits to the entire society can be summarized as following: from the government’s perspective - to assess the impact of e-commerce to the economy; for merchants - to understand consumers’ needs; and for consumers - to be offered with the right product he/she is looking for. The digital revolution in the past five years has shown the need to offer more differentiated services than the physical stores, when consumers are not able to try and touch products. It is for this reason that e-commerce has continuously developed and transformed Research Online, Purchase Offline into a true experience. Considering the future of e-commerce is to enhance economic development and growth, this research will discuss the disruption of Research and Development through big data. The core objective of this research is to propose a predictive model to deeply understand consumer behavior by analyzing new regulations and transaction records.

Abstract

The advent and rapid spread of peer to peer (P2P) technologies warrant a paradigm shift in the way we look at concepts of trust, reputation, and reliability. Users wishing to maintain anonymity and privacy are finding it harder to transact online without ceding information to a third party. The value of the marketplace is brought out through the reviews market, but there are factors that make reviewing products unappealing for users. To explore this issue, the author analyzes some of the metrics published by Amazon.com to see how people choose to trust reviews, if they do at all, and what the author can learn from the people who want to help others on the platform. This will help us assess the urgency to create value in a centralized, verified, and accredited supply of honest information. Then, we can make a case for open, P2P, decentralized, and anonymous marketplaces since they can implement a higher bar for trust and reliability.

Index

Pages 241-248
Content available
Cover of Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century
DOI
10.1108/9781789732337
Publication date
2019-04-15
Book series
Lab for Entrepreneurship and Development
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78973-234-4
eISBN
978-1-78973-233-7