Models of Modern Information Economy

Cover of Models of Modern Information Economy

Conceptual Contradictions and Practical Examples

Subject:

Synopsis

Table of contents

(37 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xviii
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Introduction

Pages 1-3
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Part I Theoretical Model of Modern Information Economy

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study the conceptual provisions of the theory of information economy and to determine its notion and essence.

Methodology

The research methodology is based on the application of traditional methods of economic science, including the methods of systemic, problem, and comparative analysis, method of analysis of causal connections, systematization, classification, and formalization of scientific data.

Results

The authors systematize the existing conceptual provisions of the theory of information economy and classify the conceptual approaches to its study as process approach, resulting approach, and combined approach; a comparative analysis of these approaches is also conducted.

Recommendations

The authors conclude that the evolutional development of modern socio-economic systems is dominated by the information economy concept, which should be the basis of the future developmental model of the global economic system. This concept develops within the combined approach, based on the previous concepts of digital economy and internet economy, which is a part of the process approach proclaiming technological capital, the key factor of reproduction, by focusing on the development of socio-economic systems and the concept of knowledge economy, which is a part of the resulting approach that emphasizes human capital and innovations as a target result of the development of economic systems. The information economy concept includes the features of previous concepts, emphasizes the importance of technological and human capital, applies information and communication technologies, and achieves results that are connected to highly effective creation, storage, distribution, and usage of information. It also supplemented them with a new sense of proclaiming information on the most valuable resources as well as provision of free and continuous interaction of economic subjects – the highest priority of socio-economic systems.

Purpose

This chapter is aimed at the elimination of contradictions and the development of a strong and transparent theoretical basis for studying information economy, with the goal of determining the basic characteristics of information economy and compiling its conceptual model.

Methodology

The research methods include the methods of systemic, logical, structural and functional analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, method of modeling socioeconomic systems, and method of graphical presentation of information. The authors also use the noosphere research method that allows for the viewing of the information economy as a noosphere and studying the role, interdependencies, and results of interaction between its components – the technosphere, sociosphere, and economic sphere.

Results

As a result, the authors develop and present a graphical conceptual model of information economy, in which the noosphere is in the form of a pyramid. The pyramid is based on technosphere – spheres of economy in which information and information and communication technologies are produced, which provides technological support for information economy. The pyramid’s center is occupied by sociosphere – information society – which is the social core of information economy, in which the constant exchange of electronic information between economic subjects in information economy and outside of it due to its openness takes place. The pinnacle is occupied by economic sphere – economic tip of information economy – in which information and information and communication technologies are used in economic activities, and informatization (transfer into electronic form) of all spheres of economy takes place. The flows of resources and information move from the foundation of the pyramid to its pinnacle, due to which the target result is maximized – intensity of creation and effectiveness of using new information – which is knowledge and technologies.

Recommendations

The authors recommend the use of the presented graphical illustration for studying the conceptual model of information economy.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the basic characteristics of information economy, including consideration of the theoretical features and distinguishing the analytical aspects of functioning of this phenomenon under modern conditions. The authors offer a hypothesis that basic characteristics of information economy are transformed under the influence of digitization and the change in telecommunication interaction.

Methodology

The following methodological tools were used: analytical introspection (determining estimate phenomena of the studied object with the help of practical materials analysis), theoretical cognition (grouping and synthesis of scientific studies of foreign and Russian scholars in the sphere of information economy), and group evaluation of phenomena (studying the modern regularities of information economy development).

Results

The following conclusions are made: the theory of information economy is based on presenting information as a tool of economy management (information is the main economic value that creates national wealth); the modern idea of information economy is connected to the aspects of digital and telecommunication interaction; the information economy of the twenty-first century is aimed at monetization of information on households; and a new basic direction of information economy is information and program economy.

Recommendations

The sphere of application of the received results is rather wide. They will be of interest for practitioners, government employees, and researchers in the sphere of macro-economic development of the country during the period of transformation of the paradigm of economic growth. The main direction of future research is substantiation of approaches to formation of a new economic thought based on information and digital technologies.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the main stages in the formation of information economy.

Methodology

The authors use the method of noosphere research, a bifurcation approach to studying dynamic systems, which is related to systemic approach, the method of structural and functional analysis, the method of dialectical materialism, and the methodology of the institutional economic theory, abstraction, and formalization.

Results

As a result of complex application of totality of the aforementioned methods and approaches to study the formation of information economy, the authors determine the essence and the main stages of information economy: formation of technosphere (technological foundation), formation of sociosphere (social core), and formation of economic sphere (economic pinnacle). At each of these stages, economic system faces serious socioeconomic changes that first face opposition from society and business, but then – with accumulation of practical experience – are accepted, opening the possibility for transition to the next stage of this process.

Recommendations

The authors conclude that while the influence of the global financial crisis in the early twenty-first century is common for all modern economic systems, it stimulated them to begin the formation of information economy. Furthermore, socioeconomic changes that followed this phenomenon are diverse and are largely predetermined by the context such as readiness of economic systems for continuation of their evolution, their reaction to crisis, susceptibility to changes, and other national peculiarities. That’s why the speed of passing the various stages in different economic systems varies.

Part II Practical Experience of Formation of Information Economy’s Model

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Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study the essence and specifics of the process of establishment and development of information economy in Asian countries and to create its conceptual model.

Methodology

The process of establishment and development of information economy is studied based on the indicators that were systematized according to the basic elements of information economy. The indicators of technosphere (technological support) are the information and communication technologies (ICT) development index according to the International Telecommunication Union and labor efficiency in the ICT spheres according to the OECD. The indicators of sociosphere (social core) are the Internet level of society according to the World Wide Web Foundation and employment of specialists in the ICT spheres according to the OECD. The indicators of economic sphere (economic pinnacle) are added value of the ICT spheres and contribution of investments to the ICT in the growth of GDP according to the OECD, as well as the Index of Digital Economy according to digital single market. The indicators of the target result (efficiency of information economy) are expenditures for innovations in the spheres of the ICT according to the OECD, share of high-tech export according to the World Bank, and the index of innovational development according to the INSEAD, WIPO, and Cornell University. The research is performed by the leading countries (as per the socio-economic development index) of the Asian regions – China, South Korea, and Japan – on global economic system (according to 2017 data).

Results

The authors concluded that the leading countries of Asia made progress in information economy’s formation, and the process in these countries has been unique, but common peculiarities allowed defining the Asian model of information economy.

Recommendations

It is recommended to use the offered conceptual model for studying the process of information economy’s formation in Asian countries and its comparison with the process in other regions of the world.

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to study the European experience of formation of information economy.

Methodology

The methodology of this chapter is based on the method of statistical analysis, which is used for calculation of direct average of the values of the indicators of European countries for each indicator of information economy, scatter (variation), and deviation of the average value of European countries from the average value among the leading countries of the world (average global value). The objects of research of the European experience of information economy’s formation are the leading countries of Europe that have the largest potential and achieved the largest progress, setting the tone for other members of the European region. The leading countries are UK, Germany, and France. The data of 2017 are used.

Results

The results substantiate that modern Europe achieved sufficient progress in information economy’s formation, and differentiation of the level of informatization of economic systems is expressed vividly, but only in certain aspects. In general, it is possible to determine common tendencies and peculiarities based on offered conceptual model of establishment and development of information economy in European countries. This new conceptual model takes into account and reflects the existing disproportions, of which the most vivid is overestimated massive technosphere, which is not implemented to the full potential due to social problems. Against its background, sociosphere and economic sphere that are standard for modern leading countries seem to diminish. At the same time, due to the strong role of the state in economy of European countries, high effectiveness of state regulation in the process of information economy’s formation is achieved if high share of high-tech export is expressed with smaller expenditures for innovations in the ICT spheres.

Recommendations

It is recommended to use the offered conceptual model to study the process of formation of information economy in European countries and comparing the effectiveness of this process in other regions of the world.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study the American practice of implementing the model of information economy as an example to the leading countries of the American region of the global economic system and to compile a conceptual model of formation and development of information economy in modern America.

Methodology

For provision of compatibility of data on different regions of the global economic system, the research is performed on the basis of the previously used methodology and information platform. The values of the indicators of technosphere, sociosphere, economic sphere, and target result in information economy’s formation in American countries and are compared to determine their variation from direct average; subsequently, they are compared with the global values for evaluation of percentage deviations. The research concerns countries such as USA, which is a leader in the American region with regard to the global economic system, Canada, which is the country closest to the level of economic development by the region’s leader, and Brazil, which is the foremost leading country among the developing countries of the American region. The data from 2017 is used in the study.

Results

The authors conclude that the US economy is not a deviant economic system but a true leader of the American region with regard to the the global economic system. That is, the USA shows higher level and rate of information economy’s formation, but applied that for the same conceptual model as other countries of the American region. The most vivid uniqueness of the American model of establishment and development of information economy is the stage-by-stage character of the noosphere pyramid, which is manifested by vivid reduction of the area of its structural elements, the most massive of which is technosphere, which corresponds to the indicators that are standard for the leading countries of the world.

Recommendations

The offered conceptual model is recommended for studying the formation of information economy in the America region and compare this process in other regions of the world.

Part III Peculiarities of Information Economy in Modern Russia

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the basic preconditions to information economy’s formation in modern Russia.

Methodology

The methodology of the research includes the method of comparative analysis, which is used for comparing the values of the indicators of informatization of Russia’s socio-economic system to the indicators of other countries, and the method of trend analysis, which is used for determining the growth rate of these indicators in Russia.

Results

The authors study the dynamics of the values of the indicators of information economy in Russia in 2008-2017 and determine three basic preconditions to the formation of information economy in modern Russia. The first precondition is related to the necessary normative and legal provision of information economy that determines the course at its formation. The second one is related to the readiness of infrastructural provision (mobile communications, the Internet, the system of e-commerce, and online payments) for formation of information economy. The third precondition is vivid progress in informatization of the socio-economic system, as a result of which Russia exceeds the average global level.

Recommendations

It is concluded that Russia has quickly implemented the strategy of modernization of the socio-economic system, creating a platform for formation of information economy.

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to determine the key barriers on the path of information economy’s formation in modern Russia and to determine the possibilities and perspectives of overcoming them.

Methodology

In order to determine weak spots in the Russian practice of information economy’s formation, the values of the indicators that reflect the corresponding progress in technosphere, sociosphere, economic sphere, and target result in Russia are compared to average values for the leading countries of the world that achieved the largest success in the formation of information economy. For that, the method of comparative and problem analysis is used.

Results

In the course of the research, the institutional barrier, which is related to the limitation of acceptance of priorities of information economy in the national strategy; structural barrier, which is based on insufficient development of the ICT spheres; and investment barrier, caused by deficit of investments in the ICT spheres, were found.

Recommendations

The determined barriers do not correlate with the national peculiarities of the socio-economic system of modern Russia. In particular, despite the incompleteness of market reformation, the level of informatization of the Russian economic system is very high. Despite the traditional public mode, sociosphere is the sector of the largest success in Russia in information economy’s formation, and the directive character of modernization of the socio-economic system stimulates quick formation of information economy due to timely establishment of the corresponding strategic course and implementation of state initiatives in the direction of its practical implementation.

Purpose

The chapter deals with the promotion of competitiveness of national producers as compared to the main leaders in the industry.

Methodology

The system management of the process of creating and mastering the production of a new product is based on effective change management, development of organizational and technical management systems, business-to-business interaction systems, business solutions relating to product creation in the industry. Systemization of problems and identification of ways of development of theory and methodology of creation of a new product by the domestic manufacturing companies can be performed by means of implementation of continuous acquisition and life cycle support (CALS) systems.

Results

Today, the fundamental conceptual basis for the formation of information space of an enterprise and application of miscellaneous information systems is the concept of continuous information support of products throughout the entire life cycle – CALS. According to this concept, one can single out the following major objectives which are essential for an enterprise and can be achieved through information technologies: the automation of production management which was conventionally achieved through the use of MICS systems, and today it is achieved due to the use of the so-called ERP/CRM/SCM systems; product data management and automation of design and engineering analysis of structures and processes (PDM/PLM, CAD/CAM/CAE-system); information support of operation and aftersales service, integrated logistic support of products. The information technologies at the present stage are a prerequisite for achieving a competitive advantage by an enterprise, particularly if the enterprise is specialized in the production of high-technology products. The major purpose of information technologies at the enterprise is the maximum effective support of design processes, production processes and other processes running at the enterprise, creation of the information basis which enables the management to take decisions which help the enterprise to achieve a dominant position in the industry sector. For Russian companies, the problem of implementation and effective employment of CALS-technologies as a means of cardinal improvement in quality and competitiveness of science-intensive products, discussed in the chapter, is extremely topical.

Conclusions

For many companies, the employment of these technologies largely determines the ability to survive in the context of an intensifying competitive struggle in the domestic market and can be considered as an indispensable condition for maintaining and expanding the sales of products on the international market.

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to determine the stages of the development of information economy in modern Russia and to create a conceptual model of establishment and development of information economy in modern Russia.

Methodology

The methodology of the research includes a systemic approach and the method of comparative analysis.

Results

The authors conclude that despite large potential, Russia is still at the initial stage of information economy’s formation due to the influence of the determined institutional, structural, and investment barriers. At present, Russia is in the process of transition from the initial stage of information economy’s formation, which is related to the formation of technosphere (spheres of the ICT), to the middle stage, in which sociosphere (information society) is established. However, despite this, there is a large potential in the sphere of informatization of socio-economic system of Russia, which belongs to the final stage of the formation of information economy.

Recommendations

The created conceptual model of establishment and development of information economy in modern Russia showed structural disproportions in information economy of modern Russia. Insufficient technological support, which has resulted in ineffective state management during the formation of information economy at the initial stage, cannot be combined with independently formed social core, the process of creation of which, initiated by the state directive on transition to the middle stage of the formation of information economy, should have started this year. The authors offer practice-oriented recommendations for correction of the current strategy of information economy’s formation in modern Russia.

Part IV Logical Disparities of the Model of Information Economy

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the level of readiness of the Russian society for information economy’s formation. For the formation of information economy, the authors use the methods of classification and structural analysis, as well as the proprietary method of criterial evaluation of society’s readiness. This method envisages structuring of population according to the main criteria: territory of residence (geographical criterion), age, level of education, level of income, and susceptibility to innovations (adaptation criterion). Based on the statistical data on readiness of various social categories for information economy’s formation and the share of these categories in the structure of population, the index of society’s readiness for information economy’s formation is calculated. The authors perform criterial evaluation of readiness of the modern Russian society for information economy’s formation as of 2017 and compile the model of the modern Russian society, structured according to the criterion of readiness for information economy’s formation. As a result, they conclude that information economy’s formation could face unreadiness of society, which is a serious barrier on the path of implementation of this process. During evaluation of the level of society’s readiness for information economy’s formation, it is expedient to structure it as per the five main criteria: territory of residence (geographical criterion), age, level of education, level of income, and susceptibility to innovations (adaptation criterion). The received structure of society allows compiling general impression on readiness for information economy’s formation of representatives of various social categories. The example of modern Russia could be the basis for similar evaluation of the level of society’s readiness for information economy’s formation in other countries of the world. This will allow developing and conducting more effective state social policy, which is directed at target influence on representatives of various social categories in the interests of increase of their readiness for information economy’s formation.

Purpose

The purpose of the work is to verify the offered hypothesis and to evaluate the potential of the modern Russian entrepreneurship in economy’s informatization.

Methodology

A specially developed proprietary method of evaluation of entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization and the level of its opening is used, which is created on the basis of the classical method of effectiveness evaluation. The information and analytical basis of studying the entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization is the materials of the report “The Global Information Technology Report 2016. Innovating in the Digital Economy”, prepared and presented by INSEAD, JOHNSON (Cornell University) and World Economic Forum. The offered proprietary method envisages evaluation of entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization and the level of its opening on the basis of statistical data according to four criteria: business and innovational environment, business ICT infrastructure, usage of new ICT in business, and economic consequences of using new ICT in business.

Results

The author evaluates the entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization in modern Russia in 2016 and concludes that entrepreneurship’s potential in modern Russia is rather high, due to which high value of the index of information economy’s formation in Russia is achieved. That is, large entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization should be viewed as a precondition for information economy’s formation in modern Russia.

Recommendations

The author proves that entrepreneurship’s potential in economy’s informatization is an important component of the process of information economy’s formation in the economic system and can stimulate successful and quick implementation of this process or, quite on the contrary, slow down it rated, based on which it should be paid more attention.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study institutional contradictions in the existing concept of institutional economy.

Methodology

The authors use the methodology of neo-institutional analysis, based on qualitative description and modeling of the process of institutionalization of socioeconomic phenomena and processes, logical analysts of their essence, advantages and drawbacks, and the method of graphical presentation of information (method of formalization).

Results

Graphical interpretation of institutional economy as a social institute on qualitative analysis reflects the determined institutional contradictions of this concept that are related to the dual character of the role of information, violation of the logic of the process of institutionalization, and uncertainty toward information exchange. The authors determine the institutional gaps in the conceptual model of information economy that show a necessity for the development of its methodological provision.

Recommendations

The determined logical mismatches in the model of information economy show nonoptimality of its concept and existence of perspectives, which depicts a necessity for its improvement – which is the main recommendation of the authors.

Part V Recommendations for Optimization of the Model of Information Economy

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to verify the hypothesis on the influence of the model of information product promotion as the main element of information economy on duration of its lifecycle.

Structure/Methodology/Approaches

The chapter includes theoretical foundations of implementation of information economy, the model of information product promotion in the market, and recommendations for optimization of the model of information economy. The methodology of this chapter includes such methods of scientific research as problem and logical analysis, correlation and comparative analysis, synthesis and formalization, and application of the Theory of Games in description of the model of information product promotion.

Results

The authors consider the process of informatization of society from the economic point of view. The conclusions are made regarding the difficulties during transition from industrial to information economy. Positive and negative aspects of implementation of information economy are determined. The model of information economy is described, and recommendations for its optimization are given. Connection between low expenditures for innovations and oil price fluctuations, peculiar for the countries that export oil and natural gas, is shown. Also, the model of information product promotion in the market is given. The sense of the model is to consider the lifecycle of the product in the Theory of Games.

Originality/Value

The performed research contributed to the development of the concept of establishment of information society and information economy as the next post-industrial stage of society’s development.

Purpose

The purpose of the work is to verify the offered hypothesis and to develop a new model of macro-economic balance, adapted to peculiarities of information economy.

Methodology

The methodology of the research is based on equilibrium approach to studying socio-economic phenomena and processes. According to this approach, in order to determine the balance in information economy, the methods of abstracting and modeling of economic systems are used. The theoretical basis of the chapter is the classical macro-economic balance in “AD–AS” model (aggregate demand–aggregate supply model).

Results

The research concluded that information economy envisages high specificity of the main commodity market – market of information as a product – and that behavior of sellers and buyers cannot be described correctly with the help of the classical two-dimensional model of demand and offer in macro-economics. In order to solve this problem, the author presents a new three-dimensional model of balance, which is adapted to peculiarities of information economy. This model shows that the aggregate demand and supply of information as a product in information economy depends not only on the level of market price for information but also on its value and preservation of its uniqueness. So apart from striving for lowest prices, consumers are interested in purchasing the most valuable information, which is not sold by sellers and is not available in the market. The market has only information that has no critical value for its owners and economy on the whole.

Recommendations

The author’s three-dimensional model of balance, adapted to peculiarities of information economy, is recommended for application.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a new perspective model of well-balanced information economy.

Methodology

The methodological tools of this work are based on application of the method of comparative analysis for comparing the old and the new model of information economy, modeling of socio-economic systems, simplex-method as an algorithm for solving the optimization task of linear programming, related to improvement of the conceptual model of information economy, and the method of formalization for graphical presentation of a new model of information economy.

Results

The developed and presented author’s perspective model of information economy envisages balancing in four main directions: infrastructural possibilities and readiness for their practical usage by society and business; state regulation and market self-management; existing and new information; and external information exchange. Despite the clarity and strictness of conceptual settings, the new model is peculiar for increased flexibility and adaptation to the peculiarities of the socio-economic practice of economic system. Thus, the new model of well-balanced information economy allows overcoming all drawbacks – logical mismatches and contradictions – of the existing (old) model of information economy.

Recommendations

Due to optimization of the conceptual model, its practical implementation in economic activities of modern socio-economic systems becomes possible – as a result of which, with accumulation of experience, it will be possible to assess true value of the idea of information economy’s formation for humanity and the global economic system.

Part VI The Key Characteristics of the Optimization Model of Well-Balanced Information Economy

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to develop and substantiate the principles of implementation of the innovational model of well-balanced information economy.

Methodology

The methodology of the research consists of the method of analysis of causal connections, which is used for determining the need for proclaiming various principles of implementation of the innovational model of well-balanced information economy, evaluation and comparison of the possible methods of their observation, and studying possible consequences. This allows determining the optimal set of principles that allow – with the highest precision – implementing in practice the offered innovational model of well-balanced information economy.

Results

The author offers eight main principles of implementation of the innovational model of well-balanced information economy: principle of balance, principle of simultaneousness, principle of balance of state and entrepreneurial initiative, principle of innovational activity of personnel, principle of cyclicity, principle of feedback, principle of effectiveness, and principle of protection. They focus on peculiarities and key advantages of the innovational model of well-balanced information economy and guarantee its formation as a result of practical measures that are aimed at informatization of the economic system. These principles must be a guide for action for modern economic systems, and their strict observation will allow implementation of the offered optimal model, not just formation of information economy, thus guaranteeing its balance.

Recommendations

The developed principles are recommended to scientific and practical application.

Abstract

The chapter studies top-priority directions of implementation of the optimization model of well-balanced information economy. It is shown that digital economy is a result of transformation of technological processes in the sphere of information and communications. New technological platforms allow legal entities and individuals to reduce transaction costs of the process of communications between themselves and public authorities. The basic reason of active development of digital economy is growth of transaction sphere, incomes from which constitute 70% of GDP in developed countries. Digital technologies stimulate more intensive training of population, help reducing expenditures during knowledge exchange, and are a basic resource during development and implementation of innovational projects. The authors study various approaches to evaluation of implementation of digital technologies and analyze Russia’s role in the sphere of development of digital technologies in the world. The performed analysis allows distinguishing priorities of implementing the optimization model of well-balanced information economy.

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to study the key components of well-balanced information economy. The authors offer a hypothesis that progressive development of information economy in the country depends on the balance of its components. The methodology of the research is based on using the method of comparative analysis and analysis of statistical information for determining the state, tendencies, and dynamics of development of the main components of well-balanced information economy. The research allowed for generalization of certain empirical data on structural components of well-balanced information economy of Russia. The performed research showed that there is a difference in approaches to determination of the essence of information economy and variety of approaches to its structure. Also, there is a sustainable tendency of growth of the key components of information economy: in the sphere of production of means of information equipment, reliability of functional equipment grows, its weight and dimensions reduce, and energy saving ratio increases; in the sphere of production of information products, variety of products grows and limits of their usage expand – from professional activities to application in households; service sphere in information economy is the fastest growing component – especially in the sphere of telecommunication systems. Russia is peculiar for imbalance between separate components of information economy, which is deepened by excessive dependence of domestic market of the information and communication technology (ICT) on foreign suppliers; as a result of which Russian companies lag behind their rivals. Hence, formation of well-balanced information economy requires symbiosis of efforts of the state, private business, and scientific community. Qualitative growth of economy is possible with technologies that allow evaluating the current state of markets and spheres and conducting effective forecasting of their development, as well as reacting to changes in the situation in national and world markets.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the basic institutes of well-balanced information economy and compile its institutional model.

Approach

The research methodology is based on the methods of the new institutional economic theory. The authors determine the most important qualitative characteristics of the innovational model of a well-balanced information economy and select social institutes that allow taking them into account and ensuring them during practical implementation of the model. The authors describe social institutes that are the basis of a well-balanced information economy and the process of their formation. The authors also use the method of modeling socio-economic phenomena and processes to compile the institutional model of a well-balanced information economy and the method of formalization of its graphic interpretation.

Findings

It is concluded that the basic institutes of the innovational model of a well-balanced information economy include the institutes of feedback collection and control and protection of information. These institutes ensure observation of the principles of implementation of this model and ensure its cyclic development and sustainability in the long-term.

Originality/Value

The presented institutional model of a well-balanced information economy harmonizes the interaction between all the participants of socio-economic relations and processes of information economy, including its state regulation, transition of new information into the category of existing (from product into resource), internal and external exchange of information, its usage, etc.

Part VII Methodological Provision of Monitoring and Control Over Implementation of the Optimization Model of Information Economy

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop the indicators that are necessary for monitoring and controlling the efficiency of the process of implementation of information economy’s optimization model. For this, the authors used general scientific research methods – systemic, problem, structural, and functional analysis to determine the key components of balancing, along with a specific method of economics – the balance method – for determining the method of balancing of indicators.

Findings

On the basis of the complex analysis performed with the application of the above methods, the authors determined the main indicators of efficiency of the process of implementation of information economy’s optimization model essential for its successful monitoring and control. These indicators are systematized in connection to the noosphere levels and are presented in this work. The offered indicators of efficiency of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model are recommended for systemic national and international monitoring and control during model implementation. The indicators for the current year, in comparison with the dynamics of previous years, could be used. The balance coefficients pose the largest value and provide the highest level of information as they reflect the results of analysis of intermediary indicators and offer information in the form that is ready for regulators. The offered indicators have to supplement the indicators used for evaluating the efficiency of economy’s formation according to the its old model.

Originality/Value

The indicators offered in this chapter focus on the balance model of information economy, however to compile a complete picture on the progress of its formation requires consideration of the values of the indicators used within the old model.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model, determine the corresponding indicators, and offer the method of evaluation of the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model.

Methodology

This research applies the methods of induction, deduction, structural and functional analysis, and graphical presentation of information.

Results

Based on the peculiarities of the information economy’s optimization model, three main criteria of the effectiveness of state management while implementing this model are distinguished: flexibility of the normative and legal provision of information economy; balance of the level and rate of development of the noosphere components; and success of the protection, usage, and preservation of information’s uniqueness. To distinguish these criteria it is offered to evaluate the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model by progressive comparison of the sum of results with the sum of limitations and costs for each direction of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model, related to the provision of observation of the above criteria. The author determines the indicators that conform to the offered criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model systematized in connection to these criteria, and offers the formula for calculating the final indicator of the effectiveness of state management of the process of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model.

Recommendations

The offered criteria of effectiveness of state management of the process of implementing the information economy’s optimization model, the corresponding indicators, and the compiled methodology of evaluating the effectiveness of this process are recommended for usage as methodological provision of monitoring and control of implementation of the information economy’s optimization model.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the completeness and substantiation of the indicators of implementation of measures on information society’s formation in the conditions of information war and economic sanctions from foreign countries, and to assess the dynamics of indicators and their achievability according to the plans of state development.

The adequately selected list of target indicators will determine the future national policy regarding the process of informatization in all spheres of national economy. Moreover, the indicators set at the stage of planning of national events will signal the correspondence of the obtained result to the planned result.

Methodology

The research applies the methods of graphic presentation of information, trend analysis, method of comparison, analogy, and systematization.

Results

According to the peculiarities of the information economy’s optimization model, the main indicators of implementing of measures for the formation of information society are: index of development of information technologies; share of citizens who received state and municipal services online; share of the population that do not use the internet; level of differentiation of the subjects of the RF regarding integral indicators; share of households with access to the internet; number of highly efficient jobs according to the type of economic activities “communication.” Evaluation of implementation of these indicators and their completeness proved the necessity for reconsidering the transfer of the implemented measures and reducing the number of ineffective ones.

Recommendations

The viewed target indicators and evaluation of achievement of these indicators of efficiency of state management of the process of implementing the model could be the basis for future correction of the process of implementation of this program. The used method of analysis could be recommended as the methodological provision of monitoring and control over the implementation of information economy’s optimization model.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to show the topicality of reformation of the state tax system as an inseparable part of Russia’s digital economy.

Approach

The main problems of state tax systems impossible to solve without information technology (IT) products and wide practical implementation of information technologies are shown. The authors also show problems of formation of legal and information environment in the tax sphere.

Findings

The results of the research show the role of information technologies in Russian tax administration system. In particular, analysis of the main elements of tax administration, implementation of which is impossible without information production, is performed, and the influence of information technologies on the observation of tax administration principles in Russia is determined.

Originality/value

Based on the experience of foreign countries in the sphere of information production of tax system, the Russian practice of implementation of the modern information technologies and solutions in the tax sphere is given and the initial results are analyzed.

Part VIII Adaptation of the Optimization Model to the Modern Russia’s Economy

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a framework strategy for implementing the optimization model of information economy in modern Russia, aimed at its adaptation to the peculiarities of the Russian economic practice.

Methodology

The methods of induction, deduction, synthesis, and systemic analysis are used, as along with goal-oriented approaches, such as the method of modeling of socio-economic systems, and the method of formalization.

Results

The authors develop the framework strategy of implementing the optimization model of information economy in modern Russia that takes into account specifics of socio-economic development and informatization of the Russian economic system at the modern stage. This strategy differs from the strategy of formation of an information economy implemented in modern Russia. The most important difference is a wide and comprehensive balance, while the Russian economy is tolerant toward imbalance. The offered strategy allows refusing from copying economic practice implemented by other countries and determining own path of formation and development of information economy. This envisages the Russian treatment of the principles of implementing the innovational model of a well-balanced information economy. This treatment is based on the current possibilities of the Russian economy and on the set goal within the formation of an information economy. Due to this, the possibilities and needs of strategic development of information economy in modern Russia are balanced.

Recommendations

The developed framework strategy of implementing the optimization model of information economy in modern Russia is recommended for usage in the domestic economic practice.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop the algorithm of the strategy of implementing the information economy’s optimization model in modern Russia.

Methodology

The method of systemic, problem, and logical analysis, synthesis, and the method of compilation of block schemes are used.

Results

The algorithm of the strategy of implementing the information economy’s optimization model in modern Russia is presented. It has a cyclic characteristic and is variable, successfully adapting the conceptual model of a well-balanced information economy to the practical peculiarities of the social system of modern Russia and ensuring flexibility of the developed strategy of its application in the Russian economic practice. The offered algorithm of the strategy of implementing the information economy’s optimization model in modern Russia is a logical continuation of the developed strategy, supplementing its scientific and theoretical significance with the possibilities and perspectives of successful practical application. The offered algorithm shows clarity and simplicity of the general internal structure of the process of implementing this strategy with a simultaneous high complexity of specific measures.

Recommendations

The developed algorithm explains the logic of successful realization of the strategy of implementing the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy in modern Russia and is recommended for usage as a practical guide for implementing this strategy.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study perspectives of formation of the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy in modern Russia.

Methodology

The research methodology includes the complex SWOT analysis of the environment, wherein the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy in modern Russia is implemented; this analysis allows determining threats and possibilities for its formation. Also, the method of formalization is used that allows tablulation of results.

Result

The authors show a number of prerquisites for the formation of a well-balanced information economy in Russia, as well as multiple internal barriers on the path of its development. One of the barriers is deficit of resources. Also, there exist large perspectives of formation of the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy. These perspectives include improvement of legal conditions of financing of development of digital economy, intensive development of the ICT spheres and online business, growth of innovational activity and efficiency in the information sphere, and creation and stimulation of implementing the possibilities for feedback in the course of information economy’s formation. Based on the analyzed tendencies, it is concluded that these perspectives will allow overcoming the major barriers on the path of implementation of the strategy of building the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy in modern Russia, related to deficit of resources, structural imbalance of the noosphere, low efficiency of information, and linear direction of the process of management of information economy.

Recommendations

The authors determine that successful practical implementation of this strategy is largely predetermined by the capability of state regulators for a highly effective management of internal and external factors. It is recommended to pay attention to the management of these factors in the process of practical implementation of the strategy of forming the optimization model of a well-balanced information economy in modern Russia.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to compile the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system, determine the role of scenario that envisages practical implementation of the new model of a well-balanced information economy among these scenarios according to the criterion of effectiveness and probability, and select and substantiate the optimal scenario.

Methodology

Due to the absence of initial statistical information that allows characterizing the basic conditions for further development of information economy in the global economic system, the method of stochastic modeling is used for describing forecast scenarios in this chapter. This method is used due to its applicability for forecast analysis in the conditions of uncertainty. With the help of this method, qualitative description of the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system is accompanied by selected quantitative characteristics, which are conventional, that is, they are given for comparing various scenarios, not for specifying a precise value of estimate indicators. Comparison of the expected scenarios of development of information economy in the global economic system is conducted using comparative analysis method.

Results

It is concluded that the most effective and optimal scenario is the one that supposes implementation of the offered new model of a well-balanced information economy – despite its lower probability as compared to the other scenarios.

Recommendations

The set optimal expected scenario of development of information economy, which envisages application of its new well-balanced model, is recommended for practical implementation in the modern economic systems.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to compile the expected scenarios of development of digital economy in modern Russia and determine the essence and peculiarities of the optimal scenario implementation.

Methodology

The research is based on the Theory of Games, which is used for comparison of expected scenarios of development of digital economy in modern Russia. A criterion of optimality of the scenario of development of digital economy in modern Russia in this work is effectiveness of its implementation, determined by comparing the results and expenditures in view of probability of each possible sub-scenario.

Results

The performed scenario analysis of development of digital economy in modern Russia showed that the most effective and, therefore, optimal scenario is the one that envisages implementation of the offered new model of a well-balanced digital economy. Despite the fact that probability was determined only for sub-scenarios, within each distinguished scenario, (for determining confidence intervals of the values of indicators) which were not compared with the level of their probability, the given optimal scenario envisages the largest changes compared to the current set course of the formation of digital economy in Russia and hence is the least probable.

Recommendations

The established optimal expected scenario of development of digital economy, which envisages application of its new well-balanced model, is recommended for practical implementation in modern Russia. The given quantitative characteristics of the optimal scenario of development of digital economy in modern Russia could and should be recommended for usage as the basis for developing practical recommendations for monitoring and control of implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop practical recommendations for monitoring and controlling the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia.

Methodology

The authors use the methods of induction, deduction, synthesis, systemic and problem analysis, and formalization.

Results

The authors develop and present recommendations for the establishment of planned values of the indicators that characterize digital economy in Russia until 2025, according to the treatment of factual values of these indicators, and for the correction of measures for regulating the process of digital economy’s formation depending on the values of these indicators. The practical recommendations offered for monitoring and controlling the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy allow creating a comprehensive and detailed national strategy and implementing it in the economic practice of modern Russia. The algorithm presented for this monitoring reflects a general logic involved in this process and opens possibilities for the manifestation of its flexibility and adaptation to each specific situation.

Recommendations

The developed algorithm of monitoring and control regarding the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia and the offered planned values of the indicators that characterize digital economy in Russia until 2025 are recommended for usage during development and implementation of the national strategy for digital economy’s formation in the Russian economic system.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study the correlation of evolutional and revolutionary transformations in a socio-economic system in the conditions of the formation of an information economy by taking the example of modern Russia.

Methodology

To distinguish these transformations by studying the information economy, based on the materials of reports and recommendations of the OECD and the World Bank, the indicators that show macro-economic transformations in a socio-economic system in the conditions of formation of an information economy and their control values that correspond to evolutional and revolutionary changes were determined. During the research, the authors used the method of comparative analysis for comparing the values of the indicators in modern Russia with the control values of the indicators that show macro-economic transformations in the socio-economic system in the conditions of the formation of an information economy and classify the corresponding transformations as evolutional and revolutionary. The information and analytical basis includes the materials of the reports of the Higher School of Economics, the OECD, the World Bank, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Wide Web Foundation, the Digital single market, the INSEAD, the WIPO, and the Cornell University.

Results

As a result, it is concluded that the planned transformations in a socio-economic system in the conditions of formation of information economy by implementating the optimization model of this process have an evolutional characteristic. Herein, certain transformations have a revolutionary nature.

Recommendations

The authors determine that the largest revolutionary transformations are due for 2022–2025. However, their classification is caused not by high rate of growth of the indicators’ values but by their achievement of control values. Therefore, the largest socio-economic shifts in the economic system in the modern Russia due to the formation of an information economy will take place in 2019–2022. Hence, in this period, an anti-crisis management of this process should be conducted.

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to study opposition of the treatment of the role and meaning of information in an economic system in the conditions of post-industrial and information economy and develop the conceptual model of information economy through the prism of treatment of information.

Methodology

The authors use the method of comparative and systemic analysis, as well as synthesis, induction, deduction, formalization, and modeling of economic phenomena and processes.

Results

The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the role and meaning of information in the economic system in a post-industrial information economy. It is concluded that the most important qualitative characteristic of information economy, which distinguished it from another, is the key role of information. The proprietary conceptual model of an information economy through the prism of information treatment is offered – it reflects the top-priority role of sustainable socio-economic and managerial connections and relations of information, which are an essential qualitative peculiarity of an information economy, which separate it and determine its specifics as compared to other types of economic systems.

It is substantiated that an information economy has to be studied not only from the position of economic statistics on the basis of precise values of quantitative indicators but also from the position of the economic theory of behaviorism, which allows taking into account the relational aspects of functioning and development of information economy. Behavior of economic subjects (society and business) as to information, initiated by their own motives, has to be one of the key objects of study by the theory of information economy.

Recommendations

Methodological recommendations are developed, which allow – with high level of effectiveness – studying information economy from the positions of economic statistics and the economic theory of behaviorism.

Conclusion

Pages 351-352
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Index

Pages 353-361
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Cover of Models of Modern Information Economy
DOI
10.1108/9781787562875
Publication date
2018-10-29
Editors
ISBN
978-1-78756-287-5
eISBN
978-1-78756-287-5