Education, Immigration and Migration

Cover of Education, Immigration and Migration

Policy, Leadership and Praxis for a Changing World

Synopsis

Table of contents

(18 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xiv
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Abstract

We are in the midst of a refugee crisis, and the ways in which we approach the issue of unprecedented numbers of people crossing borders will shape our world for generations to come. In this chapter, we problematize immunology, capitalism and other lenses through which we construct, label and categorize others and how such constructions and categorizations manifest in educational spheres for migrants, immigrants, refugees and host country nationals. As with access to education, the resources one has also determine one’s ability to migrate and the conditions of one’s resettlement. Therefore, we discuss the ways in which globalization provides greater mobility for those with substantial wealth and how conditions with/in post-modernism serve to create borders between people, their wealth and the social contexts in which they and their wealth reside. We create boxes as labels into which we slot people all too easily. While we critique the discourses and systems that create the socio-political milieu of education for immigrants, migrants and refugees in the US, we also highlight issues abroad, including how language is weaponized in the framing of immigration and those who emigrate.

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This case study focuses on the perceptions of frontline educators, including social workers and settlement workers, across all levels of two Canadian school boards in Central and Southwest Ontario. These jurisdictions attracted significant numbers of Syrian newcomers since January, 2016, both those sponsored publicly and privately, but also directly among Syrians themselves who had heard about the ‘great reputations’ of these school boards. The case study describes how educators responded innovatively – on the fly – to meet new needs, through policies, structures, staffing, partnerships and curricular changes. We documented educators’ stories, hopefully capturing the optimism as well as the stress created by welcoming the newcomers. Our findings and implications remain tentative as in ‘too soon to tell’, thus the expressions of dilemmas in leadership and policy as we witnessed successes towards Syrian integration into schools, communities and Canadian society.

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This chapter focuses on Guided Entry into New Teaching and Learning Experiences (GENTLE), a reception centre designed to welcome student refugees and facilitate their early integration into schools in the Thames Valley District School Board in Ontario, Canada. Our examination focuses on the values and policies that guided leaders’ decision-making, the practices educators employed, as well as the allocation and use of resources to ensure Syrian refugee students were integrated successfully; each issue constitutes a noted gap in the related academic literature. This chapters draws from direct accounts of the eight education leaders, working at each level of Ontario’s educational governance structure, who played a role in the integration of Syrian student refugees in Ontario. The case underscores that fulfilling humanitarian visions, such as welcoming and integrating thousands of refugees, requires a nimble, well-coordinated, strategic and adequately resourced response; the response must be grounded in a wide range of evidence, including local/anecdotal insights, to achieve an inclusive vision for education. Aspirations to fulfil such a vision must be nurtured, learned, shared and collectively earned by educators operating at all levels of the system, which remains a perpetual work in progress. Implications for leader practitioners and researchers include the need to critically interrogate educational programming for refugees offered at all levels of the school system, inspire educators of varying perspectives to commit to a particular vision of inclusion for newcomers and manage resources morally, strategically, sustainably and flexibly.

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In 2017, 22% of the Canadian population are foreign-born immigrants and one in five is a visible racial minority. Canadian schools and classrooms mirror the diversity of the society and are populated with more and more immigrant and refugee students from diverse ethnic, cultural and linguistic backgrounds each year. Uprooted from their home countries and familiar environments, immigrant and refugee students experience barriers and challenges in new living and educational environments. The increasing number of immigrant and refugee students and their unique educational needs and challenges have called building welcoming and inclusive schools a priority in Canadian education system. This chapter addresses the urgent need for high-impact policies, practices and praxis to build welcoming and inclusive schools for immigrant and refugee students through cross-sector community engagement. Based on several empirical studies, critical and extensive literature review and authors’ professional reflections, this chapter introduces a theoretical framework of building welcoming and inclusive schools for immigrant and refugee students and introduces the promising strategies of engaging community stakeholders, including educators, students, parents, governments and community organizations and agencies.

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This chapter will use the lens of Foucault’s governmentality to critique the use of foreign qualification recognition (FQR) in Australia’s skilled migration programme. Foucault suggests that an imperative for governments is to find ways to manage its population to ensure its security and well-being. Foucault notes the explosion of measures designed to facilitate this imperative. We argue that FQR’s use in Australia’s skilled migration programme is another such measure. It is a process designed to ascertain the relative value of one person against another using educational attainment as the meter. We examine the literature on the subject and find there are three key themes: scale, barriers and the persistence of the problem. We explore the concept of value in FQR and find arguments are divisible according to two camps. The first finds that an education qualification represents some objective and meritocratic value that a migrant possesses and that the barriers and persistence of problems are traceable to an inability to find the right way to realize this value. The second supposes that qualifications essentially represent a claim that need not have any basis in a form of essential value. Using Foucault’s governmentality, we suggest that FQR’s primary source of value in Australia’s skilled migration process is its utility as a part of a regime that identifies and classifies migrants and establishes a regime with which to assure governments of the acquisition of a population it believes are most likely to contribute to its security and future prosperity.

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Currently, the world is experiencing the highest levels of displaced peoples ever recorded by The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2016). Consequently, greater numbers of refugees and asylum-seekers are being resettled in host nations in Anglophone and some European nations. An increasing body of literature is examining the consequences for educational systems as this new and increasingly diverse cohort of students enters various education sectors – preschools, schools, universities and adult education. Despite a surge of interest in this area, however, the practical and theoretical implications for school leaders’ practices and praxis remain under-examined and under-theorized. Moreover, scholarship on leadership for diversity fails to capture the complex nature of leading learning for refugee students who too frequently are homogenized and essentialized under the umbrella of immigrant or culturally diverse students. This chapter contributes to filling a critical gap in our knowledge in these areas.

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Turkey hosts around three million Syrian refugees and asylum-seekers, more than any other country in the world. Most of the Syrian refugees and asylum-seekers face poverty-related barriers to education, with parents unable to legally work or meet associated costs, or feeling they have no option but to send their children to work rather than school. According to a UNICEF report (January, 2017), even though there is a 50% increase in school attendance for Syrian refugee children in Turkey since June 2016, more than 40% of them (around 390,000) are still not receiving an education. One of the biggest challenges for the Syrian refugee children who are able to go to school in Turkey is the language barrier. The language of instruction in Turkish public schools is Turkish while majority of the Syrian refugee children grew up learning and speaking Arabic. Furthermore, the refugee children often encounter experiences of discrimination, exclusion and marginalization from the non-refugee peers and teachers who cannot recognize and meet the diverse needs of these children with their lack of teaching experience in the culturally diverse classrooms. This narrative research examines the lived experiences of Syrian refugee children attending a Temporary Education Centre (TEC) in a city located in the north-west of Turkey. Narrative research is a way of inquiring into individual and social dimensions of experience over time through storytelling. It is often employed to illuminate the experiences of marginalized or excluded individuals and communities. Given the influx of refugee children in TECs and schools in Turkey, it is important to provide an in-depth understanding of the refugee children’s lived reality in schools and centres particularly, the factors contributing to their academic success, resilience and psychological well-being, so that future studies will have a basis for further investigations of newcomers.

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This chapter presents facets of the current challenges relating to policy, leadership and praxis, as perceived by school principals and both Turkish and Syrian teachers working with refugee and Turkish students in Syrian refugee schools in Ankara. Adopting a qualitative methodology, we explore the experiences, challenges and strategies of the educators in these new school types. In order to investigate this this phenomenon, we adopted the post-migration ecology framework proposed by Anderson et al. (2004) and the conceptualization of five dimensions of multicultural education (content integration, knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy and empowering the culture and organization of the school) developed by Banks and Banks (1995). The relevant policy, despite its focus on full integration, is still developing and lack clear technical guidelines for specific issues at school level. The data revealed three themes: perceptions towards the refugees, policy into practice in the schools and the consequent challenges, strategies and needs. Although humanistic ideals are manifest in all the participants’ experience with the new phenomena of refugee education, their needs are multifaceted. They are motivated by a pedagogy of compassion, containment and humanistic universal commitment. The principals employ a style of encouraging social justice and moral leadership, whereas the teachers practise the multicultural pedagogy dimensions with trial and error. Incorporation of Syrian educators and their experience and assistance to the Turkish school staff is also discussed.

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This chapter’s focus is on the disparate factors that are affecting higher education students that by circumstance not of their making are both displaced and seeking refuge within the fields of continuing their higher education. The fear of losing a young educated generation that can be part of the reconciliation process of the country in the post-conflict era has become close to reality, especially in Syria and in the neighbouring countries where the lost possibility of Syrian refugees’ returning to Syria is higher than other places. We have organized this chapter into three parts. The first part explores the history of higher education for Syrians with emphasis on the last half century. The second part describes the theoretical underpinnings of those displaced in today’s social political context through the lenses of Foucault and Maslow. The third part discusses a specific case study: the challenges Syrian students are facing in Lebanon, focusing on specific policies such as online education as a viable tool for serving displaced students, legal documents and the lack thereof, ability to get scholarships, policies and laws to understand.

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The migration of thousands of people who, every year escape conflict, repression and poor economic stability in their home country, attempt the treacherous journey across the Mediterranean Sea to reach Europe. While some do make it, questions are being posed on the effectivity of the European Union to deal with migration and explore ways of integrating migrants into society, in particular through education. The need to address the educational development of migrant learners’ calls for contextualized school leadership processes aimed at spurring teachers to hone the cultural capital brought by migrant learners in their classrooms. The authors argue in favour of culturally responsive leadership processes which (1) endorse schools as influential on society and community development, (2) detach from a ‘one-size-fits-all philosophy’ of leadership, (3) believe in the cultural capital of migrant students, (4) embrace changes in leadership styles brought about by different cultural philosophies, (5) successfully transmit to teachers that learning cannot be placed in a monocultural context and (6) advocate towards the employment of teachers whose culture reflects the cultural composition of students in their school. This chapter aims to explore what Malta, a small island state, is doing to address this mammoth task in a context fraught with uncertainty and anxiety.

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Grounded in ethnic identity theory, critical race theory (CRT) and critical discourse analysis (CDA), this chapter’s objective is to demonstrate the role of news media in the (mis)construction of the identity formation of undocumented youth and the resulting implications of this (mis)construction within the field of education. This study uses mixed methods that include a CDA of Spanish and English language evening television news reports about the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act of 2010, and qualitative analysis of interviews with undocumented youth. The implications for undocumented youth traverse from greater society and into schools, and we argue that education leaders must actively challenge and disrupt the (mis)constructions in direct and intentional ways. We provide a theoretical argument and practical steps for how education leaders can support undocumented youth in their communities.

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This study presents two ideas. The first is that schools supported by public funds are challenged to help ensure that all students, without exception, have opportunities to develop their skills, especially for those who are in more precarious situations and at risk of social exclusion. The second idea is that respecting the rights of all students is a prerequisite for achieving desirable social justice.

The content of the chapter communicates the process, results and conclusions of data obtained in four schools in Catalonia Spain. On the one hand, it is a study of the conceptions of directors, teachers and families on social justice and respect for rights in school, and on the other hand, it is an analysis of the professional practices of managers and teachers.

There were two fundamental conclusions. The first conclusion identifies the professional practices carried out in the schools to attend to the cultural and linguistic rights of the students. The second conclusion provided steps that could be taken to move towards social justice, especially in disadvantaged contexts.

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In 2015, there was great refugee migration towards and within Europe. Sweden was no exception. The unprecedented increase in asylum-seekers challenged the reception system at all levels including schools. This chapter, based on two studies, focuses on principals and their mission to adjust their schools in order to fulfil their responsibilities concerning newly arrived students’ education during that period. The number of newly arrived students the principals received ranged from a few students over a period of months to a constant influx of 60 and 150 in total. But the reaction among the principals and staff wasn’t necessarily related to the number of students in question. More telling was the school’s history, the principal’s leadership and the school’s experience in matters of diversity important. The way the principals managed the situation had an impact on how the situation developed. The findings also revealed problematic attitudes toward the ‘other’ among educators, attitudes that conflict with the school’s democratic mission. The reception of newly arrived students is a matter of a joint responsibility at all levels to guarantee equal education for all students, irrespective of their background.

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The aim of this chapter is twofold: to provide a synopsis to the background underpinning Muslim diversity in Britain and to explicate how Muslim schools in Britain are embedded into their socio-political context. The process of migration and the flow of different cultural traditions beyond their nation states’ boundaries into Britain associated with late capitalism create what Featherstone coins ‘third cultures’. The process of moving backwards or forwards between an Islamic heritage, national experiences, British socio-political cultural context and global change necessitates ‘new types of flexible personal controls, dispositions and means of orientation, in effect a new type of habitus’ (Featherstone, 1990, p. 8). Accordingly, this chapter is divided into four parts. First, it relates Muslim presence in Britain contextualizing a history of migration. Second, it discusses British Muslim demographics and diversity. Third, it places Muslim schools within a British legislative context. Finally, it discusses leadership for Muslim schooling in Britain as praxis, in the Freireian sense, involving both reflection and action. This approach places Muslim schools within a socio-political context that includes a variety of contributors beyond those who initiated them.

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Index

Pages 303-313
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Cover of Education, Immigration and Migration
DOI
10.1108/9781787560444
Publication date
2019-07-10
Book series
Studies in Educational Administration
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78756-044-4