The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences

Cover of The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences

Synopsis

Table of contents

(29 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xxix
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Purpose

In the tourism sector, the differentiation is difficult in the commoditized market. The main challenge for businesses is to design the experiences which would create awareness and difference. With this foresight, this chapter aims to show an experience-based service design path built around various elements such as sensations, emotions, human relations, innovations, and values.

Methodology/approach

This chapter is based on extensive literature review, including books, journals, articles, conference papers, and search reports. Furthermore, the Singapore Airlines web page was used as an important source of information to examine the instructional path built suggested in the literature review.

Findings

As it has been determined by the general review, experience-based service design contains different components, and with these evaluations the experience-based service design was established in this chapter within three steps: explore, design, and positioning. Furthermore, on the case study of Singapore Airlines, the tracks of these three steps have been investigated. Especially, explore and design dimensions have been identified to be used mainly during the experience design.

Practical implications

From the highlights of the literature review, an instructional path for experience-based service design and implementation process is highlighted in three parts and this instructional path would guide business managers/experience engineers.

Originality/value

As the experience-based service design has been increasingly receiving the attention of the business’ managers in the tourism sector, an overview examination of experience design, and being instructional guide will direct them to implicate the dimensions in practice.

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Purpose

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the experience-centric strategy from the aspect of innovation management, its contribution to designing and managing valuable tourism experiences, especially in context of guided tours.

Methodology/approach

The study reviews literature on experience-centric approaches and innovation, it discusses the concepts of experience-centric innovation and experience innovation, particularly the role of experience design and market intelligence in experience-centric service processes. It analyzes empirical data from interviews with eleven tour providers.

Findings

Creating novel experiences through product innovation was found as the most common type of innovation on frames of guided tours. The group size was identified as an influential feature of the experience design, and imitation has proved to be a major threat. The role of knowledge management and dynamics of knowledge were explored, too, and tour guides were identified as experiential knowledge collectors and/or creators; thus their role in knowledge management is crucial alongside the market intelligence. In contract with theoretical proposition, costumer-driven innovation is not seen by tour providers as a crucial issue in creating memorable experiences.

Research limitations

The chapter studied only traditional guided tours where the customer meets the service provider, and the data was collected only in Budapest.

Originality/value

The chapter emphasized the role of market intelligence and experience design in the process of experience-centric service provision for a successful innovation – in frames of a theoretical model. The empirical results identified some main issues and obstacles in implementation of the experience-centric approach and innovative tools and processes in context of guided tours.

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Purpose

In this chapter we aim to consider human resources (HR) within the context of tourism experiences. Specifically, our intention is to analyze and highlight the importance of a strategic approach to human resources management (HRM) and suggest suitable tools and strategies.

Methodology/approach

Extensive literature reviews were conducted on issues and aspects of HRM. Micro-cases and examples are used to illustrate efficient HRM tools and practices.

Findings

(i) HR have a significant contribution to make in overcoming the challenge of creating and managing experiences to meet customer expectations and achieve tourism business aims. (ii) The strategic management approach to HR is indispensable because consumption experience has shifted from the servicescape to the experiencescape environment. (iii) This evolution implies that tourism staff need to develop a new skills set.

Research limitations/implications

This study is explorative in nature, based on a literature review. Thus, more research-based knowledge and more empirical studies are needed to fully validate the chapter’s suggestions.

Practical implications

Strategic HRM is a requirement for tourism businesses that aim to provide valuable tourism experiences. There is a need for experiential intelligence and a bundle of skills to fulfill the customized requirements and personal aspirations of contemporary tourists. The related strategies are also discussed.

Originality/value

The study offers insights into aspects of HRM in the context of tourism experiences and highlights the necessity of developing an extended bundle of skills.

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Purpose

The aim of this chapter is to offer a conceptual model for tourist experiences in the destination and suggest implications for different stakeholders in creating experiences for tourists.

Methodology/approach

This conceptual paper explores tourist experiences based on previous literature and through a brief case. A holistic destination experience model is also suggested including the role of DMOs, host community and industry which are considered under the overall experiencescape.

Findings

Literature review and analysis of case study suggest that the destination experience can be framed based on the roles of different actors in a destination. Characteristic of the destination and stakeholders do play important roles in involving tourists in experience production.

Practical implications

Findings might provide insights to DMOs and other stakeholders in the destination concerning their roles in creating a holistic positive destination experience for tourists which is crucial for differentiation. Future research might also concentrate on different elements of destination experience and interrelationships of different stakeholders.

Originality/value

Although there are numerous papers on experiences from individual services (e.g., hotels, airlines, restaurants) in the destination, literature on overall stakeholder and creation of holistic destination experience has been overlooked. This chapter offers a theoretical model that would assist policy-makers to design experiences in the destination by looking at the roles of different stakeholders and to improve the competitiveness of the destination.

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Purpose

The chapter aims to investigate the role and the impact of social media in influencing and shaping (new) tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

A service dominant logic and co-creation approach and concepts was adopted for examining how the social media can influence interactions and participation that represent two major sources of tourism experiences.

Findings

The chapter provides several arguments showing how social media-enabled interactions and participation can facilitate, foster, and expand the experience co-creation process by altering: when, how, why, what, by whom, and how tourism experiences are co-created.

Research limitations/implications

The chapter develops and argues a theoretical framework that needs to be further validated, refined, and expanded in various contexts.

Practical implications

The chapter provides several examples showing the practical implications on how tourists and tourism firms use the social media for enriching their interactions and participation in the co-creation of tourism experiences.

Social implication

The chapter also illustrates how the social interactions supported and fostered by the social media can be used for influencing, shaping and promoting specific tourism experiences (i.e., sustainable tourism behavior, socially responsible tourism development).

Originality/value

Past research on technology enhanced tourism experiences has adopted a phenomenological approach to explaining experience creation. The chapter expands this literature by advocating the individualized and the socially co-constructed nature of tourism experiences as well as by adopting an intersubjective approach for explaining how the social media enable an iterative process among the tourists’ and their social context that in turn is responsible for the continuous formation of tourism experiences.

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Purpose

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Methodology/approach

Creative tourism in cities is profiled through a literature review and further investigated by means of a case study at a local attraction in Toronto, Canada. The choice of a site was one of a creative city and the re-purposing of a formerly industrial site for visitation.

Findings

The study of Evergreens Brickworks demonstrated the use of marketing techniques to identify markets and match visitors with experiences. The visitor segmentation method determined that pre-scheduled and bookable activities offered for locals need to be offered on a different basis for tourists, who may be one time visitors to the site. The product-market match process suggested areas in which products could be modified or indeed created.

Practical implications

This practical study offers lessons for other local visitor attractions and their managers desiring to identify market segments and match them with appropriate activities creating experiential tourism at the site level within the creative city context.

Originality/value

While many studies of the creative tourism concept and cities have been undertaken within the context of destinations this research offers a site-specific perspective as well as marketing perspective that will be of practical value to attraction managers.

Content available

Part II Managing: Organizing and Delivering Tourism Experiences Aim: to analyze issues of managing tourism experiences within various contexts

Purpose

This chapter looks at how sensitivity to event design and the creative process for an arts event also can have an impact on its ongoing management and tourist experience, by applying a new assessment tool, sustainable creative advantage (SCA), to gauge its performance.

Methodology/approach

A case study approach was used to assess SCA for the Sculpture by Sea, Bondi, Sydney 2015, in order to discuss how its management enables satisfying arts leisure experiences. Two key activities in the research were (1) in-depth interviews with organizers, full and volunteer staff, artists, gallery owners, and participants and (2) participant observation of touristic performances and other forms of engagement with the sculptures.

Findings

In its 19th edition, the event could still be considered a fresh and inspiring experience for tourists. However, crowding on weekends can affect the experience for all participants. Tactile tours are a unique feature of the event and could be promoted more to tourists, particularly the disabled.

Research limitations

Applying SCA needs careful timing, in order to collect information when interviewees are available and the event itself is running. Approaches should be made to organizers before, during, and after the event for information.

Practical implications

Event organizers could use SCA to understand more about controlling tourist experiences and how creative management and marketing of an event can have an impact on overall participant satisfaction.

Originality/value

Could also offer insights to academics studying glocality and events, the relationship of curatorial power to content/experience, or how such events can add to the study of leisurescapes in cultural tourism.

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Purpose

This study traces the growth of Dragon Boat racing from humble beginnings in 1976 as part of a local tourism strategy by the Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA) to position Hong Kong as more distinctive than a destination for shopping or with British colonial history appeal. Dragon Boat racing is now a recognized world sport requiring a global strategy of co-operative alliances and is close to becoming an official sport in the Olympic Games. Emergent strategy and symbolic authenticity of intangible cultural heritage are key concerns for integrating special events as a central tourism experience.

Methodology/approach

This chapter presents three trends emerging from a review of the literature: concern with balancing authenticity and profit-chasing; the phenomenal fast growth of the sport and the challenge to develop and maintain international control and governance; and seeking evidence of health and well-being benefits of Dragon Boat racing for breast cancer survivors.

Findings

Survivors and élite athletes represent a symbolic authenticity connected to ancient Chinese intangible cultural heritage. Chasing profits by including cultural heritage as part of a particular tourism strategy has strengthened and protected the legacy of that heritage in unexpected ways. There are lessons for those charged with designing quality events and tourism experiences linked with intangible culture.

Research limitations/implications

Based on literature review only, but sets a framework for research in several directions.

Originality/value

Demonstrates the blurring of boundaries between tourism, events and sports, and how managers must be adept to shift strategy according to changing unexpected dynamics of threats and opportunities, yet still can adhere to symbolic authenticity to maintain integrity of intangible cultural heritage as a tourism experience.

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Purpose

The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to explore the issue of experience within the context of the hotel industry and (ii) to analyze the contribution of collaboration between businesses in providing valuable experiences in hotel settings.

Methodology/approach

Extensive literature reviews have been done on dimensions and outcomes of tourist experiences and on collaboration/business venture’s contribution in providing memorable experiences in the hotel industry. A case study is then used to illustrate how hotel operations are collaborating to provide tourism experience opportunities.

Findings

(i) Collaboration between hotel operations makes a significant contribution in providing special guest experiences; (ii) Investment in business ventures is a good investment because it constitutes a potential source of competitive advantage; (iii) A collaborative platform wisely designed creates a series of business benefits.

Research limitations/implications

This study is explorative in nature. Based on a single case study of a business network, the suggestions are indicative rather than conclusive. Thus, more empirical studies and analyses are needed to fully validate the chapter’s suggestions.

Practical implications

The collaborative approach is a requirement for hotel businesses in providing valuable tourism experiences and in overcoming the issues and challenges arising within the context of experiential tourism. This collaboration offers a way of enriching and deepening guests’ experiences, based on endogenous resources and meeting the tourists’ requirements.

Originality/value

Offers insights on tourism providers’ collaborations in offering attractive experience opportunities to their customers.

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Purpose

This chapter aims to present and analyze how the methodology/approach of service blueprinting may contribute to managing and offering high quality experiences to sport tourists.

Methodology/approach

In this study we use a combination of theoretical tools to develop a finalized services blueprint map for sport events. The method consists of a literature review and a presentation of empirical findings. First, using a case study, we present the process through which a small-scale sport event blueprint map was constructed. Secondly, based on a meeting with the management staff and the use of diaries, we analyze the comments of tourists in the sport event area. Thirdly, we compare and describe the main contact points between the front-line staff and sport event tourists in a service blueprint. Finally we apply the six dimensional construct domain analysis of service experiences and combine this information in a table format for the Failure, Effect, and Action analysis.

Findings

This study shows that observation, diaries, service blueprints, comment management, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) are a range of corporate research approaches and management tools that can offer new insights into the theory and praxis of service management applications and can improve the experiences of sports tourists.

Research limitations/implications

This study is related to sport rural events. Researchers have to check with the same method to study the results also in other sport events.

Practical implications

The analysis of Small-Scale Sport Event Services Blueprinting can be combined with other useful managerial tools, like the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to better manage the contact points, the “moments of truth” of tourist experiences in the sport event service system. In addition, the SMF case study shows that it is useful to point out the problematic areas in the service system using combined methods and managerial tools with the aim of enhancing and contributing to better manage sport tourism event experiences.

Originality/value

It presents the new idea of combining theoretical constructs and measurement tools in order to blueprint, analyze, and create service customer experiences.

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Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the tourist experiences by tracing various perspectives and dimensions of authenticity, commodification, and McDonaldization.

Methodology/approach

The main debates on the authenticity of the tourism experiences and the commodification of the tourism product is examined. Further a relevant literature on the McDonaldization thesis is provided focusing on experiential dimensions of the tourism consumption.

Findings

Destinations rely not only on the object authenticity of their attractiveness but also strive to attract tourists by tailoring experiences that will meet high-order needs of the tourists. However, these destinations are under threat by commodification and McDonaldization due to excessive use of the resources as a result of mass tourism.

Practical implications

Destination managers and planners should focus on the experiences without compromising on authenticity, uniqueness, and genuineness of their destinations while refraining over-commercialization and McDonaldization of their offerings.

Originality/value

This chapter discusses the authenticity, commodification, and McDonaldization issues on the basis of a case study of a well-established destination.

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Purpose

This chapter aims to share practical experiences in creative tourism management, in order to propose some basic guidelines for DMOs and DMCs interested in designing activities that cater to this new demand. Specifically, our intention is to analyze and highlight the basic criteria that most weighs to fit such a singular demand.

Methodology/approach

As practitioners, most of the examples, observations, and analyses are based on our daily management of the Creative Tourism Network® (CTN) and the solutions found by our members in the development of their creative tourism programs all over the world. These observations rely also on surveys and literature references.

Findings

(i) The emergence of the experiential tourism in general, and the creative one in particular, is only the visible part of the paradigm shift that is affecting the tourist industry, leading to the appearance of new opportunities and challenges. (ii) Amidst such a new and versatile context, it’s important to analyze the factors that contribute to the experience achievement, in order to adapt them and guarantee the best practices. (iii) This enables to list down some guidelines and practical advises for managers to cater this new demand.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter is written simultaneously with the paradigm shift and thus limits the distance we can have on its evolution as well as on the study’s completeness. It thus just pretends to provide a provisional balance of the current situation, contrasted with literature reviews.

Practical implications

The emergence of creative tourism implies a completely new form of management for both cultural and tourist fields that leads to the creation of specific skills and general guidelines to be adapted for different contexts.

Originality/value

The study, based on examples proposed by the CTN, offers a transversal overview of creative tourism, a sector that has not been deeply analyzed yet given its increasing growth. It is thus a novel approach, close to the practitioners’ daily challenges.

Content available
Purpose

The growth in the ecotourism industry has increased emphasis on sustainable practices. Despite the fact that ample research has been conducted on sustainable ecotourism practices, many ecotourism destinations fail to become sustainable. The growth of the ecotourism industry and the global population has called for greener practices to be incorporated in developing ecotourism destinations. Waterwheel, located in the Limpopo province of South Africa, is faced with this green development challenge and serves as a case study (located at the end of the chapter) for this chapter.

Methodology/approach

This chapter gives a brief overview of the green principles associated with developing ecotourism destinations. Green ecotourism destination planning is explained within the context of the tourists’ experience to highlight aspects necessary for sustainable ecotourism destination development.

Findings

Even though the green market is still in its infancy, tourists are increasingly demanding green accommodation. A green, sustainable ecotourism destination can only be developed if green principles are incorporated from the input phase. The input phase (e.g., building materials and infrastructure systems for water and energy) determines the output phase (e.g., operational materials, activities, suppliers, activities, and marketing) and, subsequently, the level of sustainability. It is therefore crucial to plan for these aspects and the level to which the destination aims to adhere to these aspects, as they are costly.

Originality/value

Even though research on the green economy is not a new phenomenon it has only recently trickled down to ecotourism development. This explains the lack of research currently experienced in the literature of ecotourism and a gap that should be addressed urgently. Although this chapter only briefly discusses green ecotourism development, the aspects highlighted in the chapter provides other researchers with research opportunities to pursue in an effort to bridge the gap.

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Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the management of the rural tourist experience in Cyprus. In doing so, it specifically attempts to examine rural tourists’ experiences in relation to travel motives and activities performed in rural areas in Cyprus, explore overall satisfaction with the rural tourist experience with regard to several physical, social, and symbolic attributes derived from the literature review and elicit recommendations that can improve the tourist experience in rural areas.

Methodology/approach

An exploratory research approach was utilized, whereby 70 open-ended casual interviews were conducted with domestic and international tourists visiting rural areas in Cyprus.

Findings

Main findings derived from this study include the realization that the rural tourism experience is fragmented and largely shaped by travel motives, regional characteristics, support services, and service provision.

Practical implications

A refined segmentation strategy is proposed as well as the development of synergistic, innovative linkages among rural tourism stakeholders and across sectors in the industry, with thematic clusters representing a favorable proposed strategy.

Originality/value

Although the study is centered on a single case, theoretical and practical implications may be derived with regard to the demand aspects of rural tourist experiences. In turn, such insights may be transferrable to other rural destination contexts.

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Purpose

The main purpose of this chapter is to analyze the relationship between service innovation and experience creation in the context of spas, wellness and medical tourism. The objectives include providing an overview of service innovation theory and models and applying them to the spa, wellness and medical tourism sectors.

Methodology/approach

Primary research was undertaken with the purpose of identifying the most important elements in the experiences of spa and wellness guests and tourists. An online questionnaire was collected from 17 different types of spa and wellness facilities from 56 countries including all kinds of spa, wellness hotels, and retreats. Information given was based on three major demand segments: local customers, domestic tourists, and international tourists. A case study is also given of Pärnu hospital in Estonia, where innovative practices are being implemented to enhance the patient experience.

Findings

Findings suggested that some aspects of innovation (e.g., design and technology) are not as important as expected, but evidence-based treatments, medical services, and natural and local resources are.

Research limitations/implications

The research gives important insights into customer preferences and current and future trends; however, the research only focused on operator rather than consumer perspectives. This would require further research.

Practical implications

The research findings provide useful information to operators who are trying to create innovative, unique, and competitive customer services.

Originality/value

Existing service innovation models are applied to new sectors (spa, wellness and medical tourism) and new insights are given into how these sectors can increase innovation and enhance customer experiences.

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Part III Marketing: Communicating and Promoting Tourism Experiences Aim: to approach and analyze the marketing function within the same or other contexts and/or industries

Purpose

To know the role of online social media (OSM) on the experience and communication of a gay film festival (ZeFestival) in a tourist destination: Nice, France

Methodology/approach

Literature review accompanied with a qualitative study and netnographic analysis.

Findings

Informs on the use of OSMs by both organizers and festival goers, with a much poorer involvement of stakeholders than was envisaged. Proposes avenues for finding the causes of this lack of communication and sharing of the online experience.

Research limitations/implications

An exploratory study of a single gay film festival. The research work should be extended to other gay cultural events in Nice and France as a whole.

Practical implications

Recommendations for online experience sharing and communication before, during, and after the event.

Originality/value

This theme has been hardly broached on an international scale and never in a French context.

Content available
Purpose

This chapter looks at similarities between the experience economy and Disneyization, with specific focus placed on theming as a means of enhancing the visitor’s experience. Sophisticated tourists have brought with them the need for research to explain their behavior and place more emphasis on experiences. The Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, is presented as a case study that uses interpretation as a tool for theming.

Methodology/approach

This chapter is approached from a marketing perspective on visitor attractions. Several issues and guidelines related to theming are presented to highlight several aspects which visitor attraction managers need to consider when seeking to use theming to enhance or create a visitor experience.

Findings

What was evident from the literature is that the theme is the most important aspect in all models (i.e., the experience economy, Disneyization, and interpretation). The theme should be planned meticulously as the theme refers to several aspects not only in the experience itself, but also in the experience cycle. It is therefore a quite complex tool to use that should not be taken lightly in order to benefit fully from the advantages it offers.

Originality/value

The value of this chapter lies in the fact that several models and their similarities were presented with an underpinning tool called theming. As not much research have been done on theming, the guidelines presented by all the models have been considered in a systematic manner that would assist visitor attraction managers in forming a better understanding of the use of the tool and issues related to it. With this said, there are several aspects highlighted in the chapter which necessitate more research in order to assist managers effectively in designing effective themes.

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Purpose

This chapter identifies issues in the development and marketing of culinary tourism experiences with the goal of determining the value of collaborative forms of product development and marketing.

Methodology/approach

A literature review examines approaches to marketing of culinary experiences identifying a gap in the study of collaborative approaches such as networking, partnering, and alliances. A case study investigates these themes.

Findings

Through the analysis of an in-depth case study of an experiential culinary tourism event in a small city in Eastern Canada (a Restaurant Week) it is determined that informal collaboration in the form of partnership is essential to building and marketing collaborative culinary tourism products and experiences.

Practical implications

This investigation has value for academics studying culinary tourism development and for practitioners implementing collaborative forms of the development and marketing of such tourism offerings and experience.

Originality/value

In the context of culinary tourism, a case study illustrates the value of collaboration in developing and marketing experiential culinary products. Findings indicate informal collaborative partnerships are essential to building and marketing culinary tourism products and experiences, addressing a gap in the literature and providing value for practitioners.

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Purpose

This chapter discusses the current risk perception literature in the tourism field. The chapter critiques the literature and offers a solution through a more conceptual and operational definition of risk perceptions. Specifically, the inclusion of affective risk perceptions will be added to the literature via the risk-as-feelings hypothesis. Extension of the current literature will enhance research moving forward.

Methodology/approach

The chapter will provide a literature review, propose a conceptual model, and operationalize the risk perception variables.

Findings

The outcome of this chapter is to provide a conceptual model as a framework to address risk perception studies in tourism and hospitality in the future. The model will provide clear measurement scales to be tested.

Originality/value

This chapter gives a much needed theoretical and conceptual foundation to the study of risk perceptions in the travel and tourism literature.

Content available
Purpose

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new experiences. This has led to a highly competitive sport tourism market and as a result destinations engage in various marketing techniques and promotional tools to gain an advantage. For that reason this research was undertaken to acquire a greater understanding of the importance of promotional tools to successfully and efficiently market sport tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

The construct of this study comprises of two stages. The aim of the first stage is to evaluate the specific tools used to promote sport tourism and sport tourism experiences in Barbados by examining the responses of various sporting and tourism bodies. The second stage of this research was conducted to present and analyze how marketing/promotional tools could contribute to better market sport tourism experiences.

Findings

The research found that many of the promotional tools implemented in Barbados during their marketing process correspond with those used internationally. However, problems of poor and insufficient sporting facilities as well as little collaboration between tourism and sporting entities, hamper the success of Barbados as a sport tourism destination. This further minimized Barbados’ ability to market favorable tourism experiences. This therefore shows that while promotional tools are essential in attracting tourists, other elements must also be taken into consideration to ensure sport tourists have positive experiences which would lead to a successful sport tourism destination.

Originality/value

Few studies in this area have been undertaken in the Caribbean. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining the implementation of sport tourism offerings to attract visitors to Barbados.

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Purpose

To analyze and discuss the role of ICTs and the emerging trends and issues in marketing tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

Previous conceptual frameworks are reviewed and key issues and trends are identified as central for ICT-based tourism marketing. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the marketing issues could be translated into practical tourism marketing strategies.

Findings

(1) Based on the literature, a conceptual model that outlines a technology-empowered marketing approach for co-created tourism experiences is presented. (2) The identified key trends in marketing tourism experiences include the changing overall role of marketers, a growth in mobile marketing opportunities, the emergence of smart destinations and their varied implications for marketing. (3) The case studies show the integrated and strategic role of social media platforms, hashtags, photography, location-based geofilters, augmented reality and videography in marketing tourism experiences.

Originality/value

This chapter conceptually outlines the technology-empowered tourism marketing approach and the role of marketers and various other players in tourism experience co-creation. The case studies provide practical implications for ICT-based tourism marketing.

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Part IV Monitoring and Evaluating Tourism Experiences Aim: to consider and analyze issues and aspects related to the stage of post experience encounter

Purpose

This chapter sought to overcome the current theoretical lack of understanding of the memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) phenomena and provide a conceptual framework for guiding destination managers who seek to design and deliver memorable experiences appropriate to their particular destination.

Methodology/approach

This chapter employed literature-based research methods. More specifically, it sought to (1) summarize the understanding of MTEs gained from a review of others’ work, and conduct a retrospective examination of my own empirical research on the topic; and (2) convey the insights I have formulated regarding the implications for destination managers of this understanding for designing, delivering, and evaluating programs, which may increase the probability a visitor will return home with truly memorable experiences.

Findings

The literature review and the content analysis and synthesis identified seven conceptual and theoretical components of MTEs, such as hedonism, refreshment, novelty, local culture, meaningfulness, knowledge, and adverse feelings.

Practical implications

The current study suggested what characteristics of tourism experiences lead to strong memorability and how to measure each component of MTEs. Thus, the findings provide important implications for destination managers to develop tourism programs that last long in visitors’ memories.

Originality/value

Previous researchers suggested some practical strategies to prepare environments and design experiences. However, a comprehensive, theoretically sound understanding of the fundamental factors of MTEs was left out. This study investigated tourism experiential factors that enable and facilitate MTEs. It also tried to demonstrate the managerial importance of these theoretical components to the design of “on the ground” destination programs, which initially create excitement and anticipation among potential visitors (within the context of a highly competitive marketplace), to the point where a given destination is selected over a multitude of others and where it subsequently delivers the kind of high-quality “truly memorable” experiences that fully meet the inflated expectations initially “promised” by the destination brand.

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Purpose

The relevance of the use of business models in the measurement of tourist experience has been questioned. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to suggest a theoretical framework for the development of a multi-item Business Tourist Experience Value Model.

Methodology/approach

Against the Behavioural Intentions Model of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), an alternative Business Tourist Experience Value theoretical model is suggested. This model consists of an integration and re-assessment of different elements from a range of empirical studies.

Findings

Experiential value, satisfaction, and post-consumption behavior may play an important role in acquiring information and knowledge creation on how business tourism organizations can use a Business Tourist Experience Value model to enhance service experiences.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the explorative nature of the Business Tourist Experience Value theoretical model, more empirical studies are needed to investigate, test and validate the model.

Practical implications

Results from the theoretical discussion support the inclusion of experiential value, satisfaction, and post-consumption behavior as part of the Business Tourist Experience Value model. Due to the magnitude of the relationships among these dimensions it is expected that the theoretical and practical implications may complement each other. Therefore business tourism managers can use these dimensions as guidelines on how to create valuable experiences for their tourists and perform better.

Originality/value

This theoretical model offers new practices into business tourism managers’ measurement of experiential value, satisfaction, and post-consumption behavior in a business tourism context.

Content available
Purpose

The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to perform a synthesis of the academic research regarding the changes of tourist consumer behavior brought about by social media; and (ii) to suggest a set of strategies for tourism businesses to address resulting challenges.

Methodology/approach

Extensive literature reviews have been executed on the motivating factors and the effects of online reviews.

Findings

This analysis of the related research identified three main topics, namely: (1) the antecedents, the factors motivating tourists to write online reviews; (2) the impact of eWOM on providers of tourism services (business perspective); and (3) the influence of online reviews on consumers’ behavior (demand perspective). This chapter focuses on the impact of online reviews on tourism businesses and suggests suitable strategies.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a literature review and implications indicated by previous studies; hence the suggestions are indicative rather than conclusive. A need exists for empirical studies to fully validate the chapter’s suggestions.

Practical implications

This chapter outlines a series of adequate strategies formulated for business practitioners divided into two fields, namely managerial and marketing activities.

Originality/value

This study provides practical recommendations/suggestions for tourism businesses in addressing the challenges and opportunities raised within the online context.

Content available
Purpose

This chapter presents a research paper with empirical investigation on tourism experiences specific to heritage attractions. It analyses the five principles of experience economy within the context of heritage attractions. The study aims to find out if heritage attractions are using the principles of experience economy to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors. The principles of the experience economy are having consistent theme, using positive cues, eliminating negative cues, offering memorabilia, and engaging the five senses.

Methodology/approach

The survey method was used to collect data from three separate heritage attractions in Jamaica. Frequency distribution was used to determine the observations in the sample.

Findings

Results of the study reveal that majority of visitors either agree or strongly agree that many of the elements comprising the principles of experience economy are in place. One similar drawback among the attractions is that they all use visual and aural messages which can distract or contradict the theme and consequently visitors’ experience.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that it did not take into consideration the relationship between visitors’ experience and their expectations as well as visitor satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study will inform management of heritage attractions of the importance of having implementing the principles of experience economy so as to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors.

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About the Authors

Pages 529-540
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Index

Pages 541-548
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Cover of The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
DOI
10.1108/9781786352897
Publication date
2016-12-28
Editors
ISBN
978-1-78635-289-7