Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes

Cover of Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes
Subject:

Synopsis

Table of contents

(19 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xxi
Content available
Free Access

Part I Introduction

Part II Approaches to Integrating the Curricular, Co-Curricular, and Extra Curricular

Purpose

To demonstrate how applied projects integrated within master’s level graduate programs in the organizational sciences provide students with experiences that facilitate the translation of classroom concepts into practices that positively impact individual, organizational, and societal level outcomes.

Methodology/approach

We discuss how the scientist-practitioner model guides our thinking regarding the development of cocurriculum options for master’s level students. To give context, we provide thumbnail sketches of two applied programs — a master’s of science degree program in industrial-organizational psychology and a master’s of business administration (MBA) program — that serve as exemplars for linking practice with science.

Findings

We demonstrated, with specific examples, how practicum courses can bridge curricular and cocurricular offerings in stand-alone master’s programs, thus offering a glimpse into the range of activities completed by master’s students with little to over 20 years of work experience: job analysis, interview protocol development, program evaluation, talent acquisition, performance management, coaching, as well as training strategy ideation and delivery. We conclude the chapter with final reflections on the use of practicum classes in master’s level training.

Originality/value

The practicum courses detailed serve as unique exemplars of how to apply theory and research to organizational problems, thus bridging science and practice in the organizational sciences.

Purpose

This chapter examines the integration of curricular and extracurricular approaches to learning.

Methodology/approach

The study is performed through a case study examination of leader development programs at the United States Naval Academy.

Findings

The Naval Academy’s organizational and pedagogical approaches are grounded in the science of experiential learning and seek to integrate classroom instruction with the myriad leadership opportunities that are inherent in the design and function of the institution. Highlighting the example of the Class of 1977 Gettysburg Leadership Encounter, we show the impact on leadership development of explicitly linking curricular and extracurricular programs, and describe various tools that have proved effective reinforcing those linkages.

Originality/value

Students involved in this and other experiential programs and activities are better able to transfer the knowledge acquired in the classroom to the practical experience of leading their peers, and they lead with more confidence and better effectiveness. We conclude that this kind of integration has the potential not only to benefit the individuals involved but also to generate data on learning and development which could then be leveraged to enhance leader development through evidence-based analysis, feedback, and basic research.

Purpose

This chapter analyzes art-based methods that focus on the deliverables required from the student in an academic exchange.

Methodology/approach

The study will focus on a group of second-year Master’s students who, accompanied by an artist-coach and a researcher, were asked to produce an artwork reflecting their views on the technical or theoretical issues in accounting. These works were invented and realized in a four-day workshop and exhibition organized by the students.

Findings

Student submissions were found to fit into four types of outcomes: instrumental, developmental, directed, and embedded. The first two are produced by the processes mobilized in art-based teaching, while the second two are linked to the specific form of the artwork engaged in by the teaching process. Observing that few theories have explored the range of outcomes attributable to the form, the author draws on the experiment as well as Winnicot’s concepts of transition and intermediate objects to define the specific transformative quality of art forms. By investigating the special area where the delimitations between the self and the world are blurred and changing, the art-maker student adopts a posture of a natural researcher who creates knowledge at the moment he defines his self — or to put it differently, through art-making, the student produces his/her self and his/her knowledge at the same time.

Originality/value

Recognizing that empowering the complexity of expression liberates access to knowing abilities and independent critical learning.

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is one of the fastest growing disciplines at colleges and universities today. Programs span campuses offering traditional coursework and a variety of experiential learning options for students from all majors. While most agree that as much learning, if not more, occurs outside of the classroom, there has not been a model for integrating curricular and cocurricular components in entrepreneurship programs. Moreover, there has not been clear agreement on how to assess value from these programs.

Methodology/approach

To resolve this, we used a five-phase competency development process to create a customized learning model that engages the learner, the educator, and the community volunteer in the learning and assessment process at both the individual and program levels. This chapter presents a case study in a private, metropolitan university of 8200 students. The case study presents the problem and rationale, a history and overview of the application of competency-based education, and a five-stage process used to develop the model and apply the model to achieve a customized learning path for students in entrepreneurship.

Findings

The five-stage model of competency-based education can be applied to develop a customized learning approach and assessment path for students who study entrepreneurship. The use of a technology support platform can extend and simplify the use of this model and allow for the integration of curricular and cocurricular components of an experiential education.

Originality/value

This is a unique approach to integrating curricular and cocurricular education to provide a holistic experiential education for learners. The value of this program extends to faculty who assess learning and volunteers who participate in the learning experience. Specific attention is given to the challenges and process for curriculum mapping and the use of this model for assessment.

Purpose

The initial purpose of this study was to examine the educational needs and perceptions of students and clinicians in Canadian legal clinics.

Methodology/approach

The author conducted a literature review of leading educational materials in Canada and the United States focusing on required or preferred competencies for law students. The author then interviewed law students, clinicians, social workers, and community legal workers from across Ontario, Canada, all of whom were working or studying at law school-affiliated legal clinics. Interview subjects were asked a series of questions about their learning experiences in hopes of informing the creation of clinical teaching and learning materials.

Findings

The data revealed an under-reliance of the affective elements of teaching, learning, and practice in both existing literature and current teaching practices. The data also revealed deep structural divides between doctrinal and clinical teaching and learning approaches.

Originality/value

Without further integration between these two approaches, students and, ultimately, communities and clients will not reap the benefits possible from an integrated curriculum.

Purpose

The chapter evaluates the value of practice-based teaching and learning on a UK postgraduate unit and describes the development of conceptual models for the student practice-based experience.

Methodology/approach

Student experience is explored through the use of an in-depth case study. Student understanding is explored through an exit survey of students.

Findings

Student experience of the unit was positive and negative. Positive experiences stem from good client communications, a motivated student team, and the buzz of a real project. Positive experiences appear to lead to a perception of pride in outcomes and personal transferrable skills. Negative experiences stem from the lack of life experience, language difficulties, client unavailability, lack of subject knowledge, and literature gaps which left students feeling ill-equipped to deal with the international group context. Negative experiences lead to stress and poor group development.

Research limitations

The study is based on a single simple case. The methodology has sought to reduce problems with internal validity and bias. The data collection and analysis methods are repeatable and we encourage other academics to test our conceptual models and conclusions.

Originality/value

Conceptual models for positive and negative experience are proposed.

The study suggests there is a balance to be sought between providing a positive student experience and practical learning. Practice-based learning adds significant value to the student in terms of improved understanding of hard and soft tools, but may need to be based upon positive and negative experience.

Purpose

The chapter focuses on how engaging undergraduate and graduate students at a metropolitan university through community-based experiential learning can help them make a difference in their personal relationships, in their workplaces and in their communities.

Methodology/approach

The chapter explores the University of Arkansas at Little Rock Department of Speech Communication’s integrated approach to undergraduate and graduate curriculum that focuses on four types of casing complex problems and making positive, ethical recommendations to make a difference. Specifically, the chapter explores how problem-based learning; service-learning; narrative ethnography; and research projects can be used as meaningful ways to case complex communication issues and to make ethical, theory-informed recommendations to not only do no harm but also affect positive change and promote social justice in students’ personal relationships, organizations, and communities.

Practical implications

Lessons learned from the programmatic approach are shared that include building a theoretical base for students to draw from, integrating case approaches into the curriculum, and engaging resistance and failure. Chapter recommendations promote using theory as a lever for learning, building meaningful relationships with stakeholders, and adopting a process orientation that embraces failure.

Originality/value

The chapter offers a review of four undergraduate courses and four graduate courses, with explicit applications of the four case approaches. Additionally, learning objectives, major assignment descriptions, and assessment approaches are detailed for each course.

Part III Integrating International Learning into Curricula

Purpose

This chapter provides the structure of an engaging intercultural, out of class, integrative curricular Somali Immersion Experience (SIE) offered to University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Education Studies majors and nonmajors who are not exposed to many different races, ethnicities, and people from different cultures because of the demographics of Eau Claire.

Methodology/approach

SIE participants complete 24 classroom hours and a weeklong immersion into the Somali Community of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Critical Race Theory provides the framework for the coursework. Quantitative data is collected via pre- and post-SIE online surveys and classroom assignments. Qualitative data is collected via summative papers and reflective sessions.

Findings

The results indicate that participants develop understanding and knowledge of Somali culture, religious practices, life styles and school lives, as well as their performance in teaching, reading, mathematics, and social studies to nonnative speakers of English. The participants’ preconceived notions about Somalians, Muslims, and Islam were based on what they saw portrayed in the media. After the SIE, participants expressed how much knowledge they gained about best practices in English as a Second Language instruction, communicating: “Somalians and Muslims are a peaceful people.” One participant exclaimed “I have learned more in a week than I have learned during my field teaching experience and more than I have learned by taking a semester long class.”

Originality/value

This chapter offers help to individuals and institutions wanting to improve students’ exposure to diversity through domestic immersions.

Purpose

This chapter analyzes the impact of intercultural academic experiences on students in the areas of intercultural sensitivity and multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Methodology/approach

Cottey College’s mission statement includes a clause about educating students to be useful members of a global society (Mission, n.d., para. 1). Toward achieving the mission, each of Cottey College’s second year students is offered an international experience over spring break that is largely paid for by endowed funds. For spring break 2015, the author of this chapter and a colleague offered a trip to Thailand. To participate, students were required to take part in a Step into the World!: Thailand course that was intended to prepare them to successfully navigate, and later reflect upon, their experience abroad. The trip portion of the course spanned 10 days. To measure what impacts the course may have had, students were asked to complete a pre-course and post-course survey, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (Fritz, Möllenberg, & Chen, 2002), and to complete journal entries and a personal impact statement by which their multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills were assessed.

Findings

Analysis of the results suggests the Step into the World!: Thailand course had a positive impact on the majority of students’ intercultural sensitivity and multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Originality/value

The findings support the importance of intentionally combining inside and outside of the classroom experiences to enhance student outcomes.

Part IV Learning from Peers

Purpose

This chapter examines the infusion of liberal arts studies into traditional business education.

Methodology/approach

The object of study will be the collaboration between representatives of the University of Dance and Circus and the Master-level students of the Stockholm School of Economics. Evidence of the effect of this collaboration will be drawn from interviews, observations, and reflections gathered from the business students.

Findings

This study and its related counterparts show that liberal arts studies incorporated into business programs enhance creativity, professional judgment, social contribution, and personal fulfillment in students. The addition of multiple framing was found to be particularly healthy to the students’ educational development.

Originality/value

The involvement of creative processes in business education leads to a more fulfilling and beneficial program for students.

Purpose

We examine the question of whether peer-mentoring programs in higher education develop leadership skills in student mentors.

Methodology/approach

The various forms of peer mentoring are discussed, as well as the benefits that these programs can bestow on mentors. We then turn to a discussion of the relationship between peer mentoring and leadership, and place particular emphasis on implicit leadership theories and the research in this area. A case study of a large peer-mentoring program at an Australian university is undertaken and the various aspects of implicit leadership theory are examined in the light of comments collected from both mentees and mentors.

Findings

Evidence of implicit leadership skills of mentors was seen in the responses of mentees. However, the explicit treatment of leadership skills in the peer-mentoring program needs to be approached in a more deliberate manner if students are to benefit fully from the experience of mentoring.

Originality/value

While the results of this study were inconclusive, it does provide a basis for further inspection of leadership development within peer-mentoring communities.

Purpose

This chapter explains how the Social Change Model of Leadership served as the process for uniting the campus on Cabrini Day around one shared vision of Leadership for Social Change. It also uses Mezirow’s theory of transformative learning to examine the resulting transformation that occurred among students engaged in this process.

Methodology/approach

In an effort to showcase students’ transformation into leaders for social change, the chapter focuses expressly on students enrolled in one particular course. These students worked together to develop a live simulation for Cabrini Day that brought campus community members through the real-world experiences of unaccompanied immigrant minors fleeing to the United States to escape violence in their home countries. The chapter employs an action research methodology to describe how, when, and why these students became transformed. Students’ planning steps, actions within the live simulation event, and reflections on their actions were analyzed using the individual, group, and community values of the Social Change Model, as well as the tenets of transformative learning theory.

Findings

Findings reveal that the Social Change Model is a viable process for integrating curricular and cocurricular endeavors on campus. Findings also show that this process can lead to transformative student learning outcomes.

Originality/value

Integrating curricular and cocurricular experiences on college campuses can lead to significant student learning outcomes and experiences.

Purpose

This chapter describes an alternative model to out-of-the-classroom learning which has been highly successful in assisting students in New Zealand to make the transition to either the workplace, or to higher qualifications.

Methodology/approach

The final paper within the New Zealand Diploma in Business is ‘Applied Management’ in which students work in groups to design and implement a semester-long research inquiry with a host organisation. The authors discuss the challenges and strategies associated with delivering this paper and reference three current studies which relate to this student cohort: the first about students’ perceptions of cooperative learning in groups, and the alternate selection and assessment techniques the university has been trialling; the second about a Māori mentoring pilot pairing students with mentors in the workplace; and third, examining students’ experiences and expectations of the Diploma as a pathway into degree study.

Findings

Our story offers an example of how a focus on quality and accountability to local business stakeholders has created a successful co-curricular learning environment, and suggests the value of combining the three strands of research, teamwork and co-curricular projects.

Originality/value

While the context is of a small, regional institute, many of the elements of good practice will be transferable to other higher education providers.

Part V Leveraging Co-Curricular Endeavors

Purpose

This chapter acknowledges the current dearth of direct evidence of student learning and discusses the limited value academic and co-curricular transcripts (CCTs) provided to students, educators, and employers.

Methodology/approach

This chapter studies the myriad outlets in which students acquire useful academic and non-academic skills outside of the grade point system. Disadvantages in the arbitration and secular nature of the common transcript are also addressed.

Findings

Exploring and responding to the concerns from a diverse chorus of higher education constituents and calls for increased accountability and improved student learning in higher education, this chapter proposes the development of an outcomes-based CCT, as an extension of the traditional CCT, to take advantage of the rich and numerous learning opportunities within the living laboratory of co-curricular experiences where students repeatedly demonstrate and hone their skills and competencies throughout their collegiate experience.

Originality/value

The chapter discusses a number of examples and models of what such a program might look like and provides insights and suggestions as to how it could be implemented thoughtfully and effectively. It also explores several of the benefits and challenges associated with implementing an outcomes-based CCT.

Purpose

This chapter aims to discuss methods for promoting student engagement to counteract declining academic motivation and achievement in the contemporary setting.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, two studies are presented that describe ways to promote student engagement in and out of the classroom. The in-class study was conducted with psychology students at the University of Nebraska at Kearney (UNK). The Student Course Engagement Questionnaire (SCEQ) developed by Handelsman, Briggs, Sullivan, and Towler (2005) was used to measure student engagement. Study 2 examined the extent to which four high-impact educational practices promoted student engagement. Undergraduate UNK students who had participated in undergraduate research, learning communities, service learning, or internships were surveyed.

Findings

The results of the first study indicated that instructors can promote engagement by how the structure of the classroom (discussion classes), individuation (knowing student names and keeping class sizes small), and teacher support in the form of being responsive to student questions, encouraging students to seek assistance, and assigning effective aids to learning. The second study indicated that undergraduate research and internships were more engaging than service learning or learning communities.

Originality/value

These results suggest practical methods for meeting a variety of student needs, including their need for relatedness — by encouraging them to seek assistance and knowing their names, competence — by assigning effective learning aids and autonomy — by encouraging intrinsically motivating activities.

Purpose

This study aimed to match high-impact, experiential learning with equally powerful assessment practices.

Methodology/approach

We observed three examples of programs, analyzing individual student artifacts to identify multiple learning outcomes across domains through a novel approach to assessment.

Findings

Important outcomes from this effort were boundary-crossing qualities made visible through a multi perspective assessment process.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should focus on the nature of experiential learning and measurement thereof.

Practical implications

Learning design should consider experiences as a means to reflection, which complement content delivery. Instructors may restructure course credit loads to better reflect additional learning outcomes.

Social implications

Learners with this feedback may be able to better articulate sociocultural learning.

Originality/value

Describes learning in experiential and high-impact education; novel assessment of experiential learning in university setting.

Index

Pages 451-456
Content available
Free Access
Cover of Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes
DOI
10.1108/9781786350633
Publication date
2016-12-22
Editors
ISBN
978-1-78635-064-0
eISBN
978-1-78635-063-3