Advertising in New Formats and Media

Cover of Advertising in New Formats and Media

Current Research and Implications for Marketers

Subject:

Synopsis

Table of contents

(20 chapters)

Prelims

Pages i-xviii
Content available
Free Access

Part I The Changing Advertising Universe

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to understand advertising attention in new formats. More specifically, it argues that new advertising formats might force advertising practitioners and researchers to reframe the challenges of gaining attention as one of understanding advertising approach rather than advertising avoidance.

Methodology/approach

The chapter is conceptual and builds on a review of literature on advertising attention, advertising avoidance, and advertising approach.

Research/practical implications

The chapter concludes with a review of future research directions. More specifically, it points out implications of shifting perspective from advertising avoidance to advertising approach for advertising practitioners and researcher alike.

Originality/value

The chapter offers a novel perspective on advertising attention in new advertising formats. In doing so, it hopes to stimulate more research on consumers’ willingness to approach (rather than avoid) advertising.

Purpose

This chapter provides an overview of the state of knowledge about creative media advertising; choosing a novel medium that implicitly communicates the message. It explains what creative media advertising is and how it differs from other unconventional marketing communication formats. It addresses the theoretical mechanisms that explain how creative media affects consumers. Its final purpose is to review all the empirical findings about creative media advertising effects.

Methodology/approach

This chapter presents a systematic literature review of all the empirical research about creative media advertising that explicitly compares its effectiveness with traditional media advertising. The 11 reviewed articles with 16 experiments appeared between 2005 and 2015.

Findings

Overall creative media advertising generated positive evaluative outcomes (e.g., brand attitude) and behavior (e.g., word of mouth and sales). These effects were often mediated by a feeling of surprise and an increase in positive thoughts. It remains unclear whether creative media are perceived as persuasion attempts. Mixed findings exist for cognitive outcomes. Creative media advertising seems beneficial for creating strong brand associations, but brand memory might suffer from the technique if solving the link between the medium and the message takes away mental resources for the brand elements in the advertisement.

Originality/value

By reviewing all the literature about creative media advertising, the authors make recommendations for future research and for using creative media in practice. They emphasize potential boundary conditions and ideal circumstances of using creative media advertising.

Purpose

This chapter will look at the development, types and effectiveness of new forms of advertising in television (NFAs) and report on the current state of research in the field.

Methodology/approach

The most relevant contributions from the literature describing the practice and assessing the effectiveness of NFAs are presented and reviewed.

Findings

NFAs have emerged in response to the decreased effectiveness of conventional television advertising (spots) due to audience fragmentation, zapping, saturation and increased competition. Currently, NFAs are widely used around the world. Although the available empirical evidence indicates that NFAs are more effective than traditional spots in terms of recall, this chapter points to a need for better scientific understanding of key aspects of these new formats. Given the important role that NFAs play in how today’s television advertising market is managed, further research is needed on their effectiveness.

Originality/value

The literature on the practice and analysis of the effectiveness of NFAs is unfocused and varied, making it difficult to adequately determine whether the growing use of these formats can be justified on the grounds of proven arguments regarding the qualities that set them apart from traditional spots. In this regard, the summary provided in this chapter of both the state of knowledge about different types of new advertising formats on TV and their effectiveness is an important reflection of the state of the art in research on these formats.

Purpose

This chapter aims to provide an overview and conceptualization of multiscreening in the field of advertising effectiveness.

Methodology/approach

By means of the multi-dimensions of media multitasking, it is possible to differentiate different forms of media multitasking. This framework is used to describe and explain the phenomenon of multiscreening. The framework consists of four categories each with its own dimensions: (1) task relations (e.g., task hierarchy, task switch, shared modality), (2) task inputs (e.g., information flow), (3) task outputs (e.g., behavioral responses), and (4) user differences. The description of multiscreening per dimensions is completed with a review of recent literature in the field of multiscreening, media multitasking and persuasion.

Practical implications

Literature in the field of media multitasking often assumes detrimental effects. Practical implications for advertisers are discussed by presenting an overview of the existing literature on multiscreening and advertising effectiveness. At the end of the chapter, a summary of the different dimensions is presented and an answer is formulated to the question: Is multiscreening a challenge or opportunity for advertisers?

Research implications

In addition to practical implications, this chapter also offers an overview of the current research in the field of multiscreening and advertising effects. By presenting recent literature in this field, it becomes clear where knowledge is lacking. Directions for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

This chapter is the first to present a structured overview of the phenomenon of multiscreening. It will provide practitioners and researchers with the current status in the field of multiscreening and advertising effectiveness. In addition, the chapter can also be seen as a guide for future directions in the field of multiscreening.

click here to view access options
Purpose

As an extension to Assael’s (2011) review on media synergy, this chapter examines the latest evolvement of media synergy research in the past 10 years by integrating studies from a wide range of leading journals.

Methodology/approach

We searched a total of 17 major journals in advertising, communication, and marketing from 2005 to 2014 and identified a total of 42 articles on media synergy. These studies were reviewed to assess the current status of media synergy research.

Findings

Studies of inter-media interaction at the individual level provide mixed support for a media synergistic effect, and the occurrence of this effect demands certain boundary conditions. Research on multi-media engagement has been gaining momentum in the past few years and is a promising subject in media synergy research.

Research implications

We envision two growing approaches in future media synergy research: the neuroscientific approach and the data mining approach.

Originality/value

This chapter posits that media synergy research has evolved in the most recent years to a new phase, which is multi-media engagement. Hence, this chapter extends Assael’s work in terms of explicating media synergy in the context of social media engagement and identifying research gaps in current literature.

Purpose

This chapter provides an overview of what is currently known in the scientific literature about the effects of disclosures of sponsored content on consumers’ responses.

Methodology/approach

We provide a qualitative literature review of 21 empirical studies.

Findings

Awareness of disclosures is rather low, but when consumers are aware of a disclosure, it successfully activates persuasion knowledge and can increase brand memory. The literature shows inconclusive findings with respect to the effects of disclosures on attention paid to sponsored content, critical processing, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions. In addition, the literature shows that modality of the disclosure has no significant effects, but the content of the disclosure, its timing, its duration, receivers’ moods, and their perceptions of the sponsored content or the endorser are important moderators.

Research implications

More research is needed on differences in effects of disclosures in different media and on disclosures of online sponsored content online (e.g., sponsored tweets and vlogs).

Practical implications

This chapter provides advertisers with insights on how disclosures affect the persuasiveness of sponsored content in several media.

Social implications

For legislators, explicit guidelines on how to create effective disclosures of sponsored content are provided. For example, to increase persuasion knowledge, disclosures should be portrayed for at least 3 seconds and if logos are used, they should be accompanied by texts explaining the logo.

Originality/value

This overview is a valuable starting point for future academic research in the domain of disclosure effects and provides insights for advertisers and legislators.

Part II Advertising in a Digital Connected World

click here to view access options
Purpose

Companies are interested in engaging consumers in spreading the word about their products or brands. Although more and more studies are analysing word of mouth marketing (WOMM), the topic is still very recent, thus very little is known about how to develop a WOMM campaign effectively. This chapter develops a literature review on WOMM in social media for better understanding on how to manage WOMM.

Methodology/approach

The studies reviewed have allowed us to identify the main decisions that should be taken when planning a WOMM campaign: the selection of the seed, the type of message and the inclusion of incentives.

Findings

We identify the two types of objectives that companies can follow with WOMM: information diffusion or consumers’ persuasion. Depending on the campaign objectives, the strategy to be used in order to be successful is different.

Social implications

This chapter can be useful to both, marketers, by showing them how to develop a WOMM campaign effectively; and researchers, by showing them the main gaps on WOMM that should be addressed in future studies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to review the literature and organize knowledge on WOMM. Concepts that have been treated as synonymous by many researchers such as opinion leaders, market mavens, innovative consumers, and hubs are clarified and distinguished one from the other which may help in improving previous knowledge on this field.

Purpose

Brand pages are a very popular tool for companies to communicate with consumers in SNSs. Although brand pages could be considered virtual brand communities, they differ in several aspects. Thus, this chapter reviews the literature on brand pages attending to the main differences with other virtual communities, the motivations to join brand pages and its consequences for consumers and brands.

Methodology/approach

The studies reviewed have allowed us to identify the main characteristics of brand pages as a communication tool, as well as the definition of an important research agenda for this topic.

Findings

We have identified the main unique aspects that characterize brand pages as a virtual brand community. The motivations to become members of brand pages are analyzed as well as the positive consequences of these pages on the marketing variables. We also identified the research needs on brand pages.

Social implications

This chapter can be useful to both, marketers, by showing them how brand pages work and what motivate consumers to join it; and researchers, by showing them the main gaps on brand pages that should be addressed in future studies.

Originality/value

This chapter highlights the role of brand pages as a communication tool. It constitutes an attempt to review the literature and organize knowledge on brand pages. The characteristics of brand pages and virtual brand communities, the motivations to participate, the consequences for the brand and an important research agenda are developed.

click here to view access options
Purpose

This chapter has three central goals: First, it aims to introduce the concept of consumers’ online brand endorsements, which we define as consumers’ intentional, public, and positive online affiliations with brands (e.g., liking a brand page on Facebook). Second, it provides an overview of the drivers and consequences of this phenomenon. Third, it answers the question whether and when the broadly adopted marketing strategy of consumers’ online brand endorsements is feasible.

Approach

To accomplish these goals, we conducted a general review of the literature.

Findings

We identified three different drivers of consumers’ online brand endorsements: Identity-related drivers, brand-related drivers, and community-related drivers. Based on the literature we suggest that from the perspective of the endorsing consumer, online brand endorsements have the potential to be a two-sided sword.

The greater potential of this marketing technique appears to rely on the fact that consumers’ online brand endorsements are broadcasted to a gigantic network of other consumers and their potential to be contagious.

Originality/value

Consumers’ online brand endorsements are a new phenomenon and therefore quite understudied. Still, many brands have social media marketing strategies that aim to acquire huge amounts of endorsements by their consumers. This chapter contributes to our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of consumers’ online brand endorsements. Moreover, it shows how and when consumers’ online brand endorsements can be a feasible marketing strategy.

Purpose

To explore and measure wearout or the acceptance threshold, beyond which, messages in the form of mobile text advertising generate irritation. To assess the set of factors that positively or negatively, according to literature, influences the attitude towards advertising in short message service (SMS) format and on this basis to propose future research along this line. There is also a focus on irritation antecedents.

Methodology/approach

Two surveys are used to prevent unbiased answers. The first one is driven to study the wearout effect in the SMS context. An offline survey is carried out using a structured questionnaire. A sample size of 188 using convenience sampling is collected. The second research is driven to study irritation and attitude towards SMS advertising. Data are collected through an online questionnaire which is published through social media platforms, an e-mail mailing list and a quick response (QR) code. An international sample size of 253 applying a convenience and snow ball sampling procedure is collected.

Findings

The wearout threshold and irritation antecedents in the mobile advertising context are identified as well as positive and negative factors which influence attitude towards SMS advertising. The replies do not match exactly with the significant factors found in previous research.

Research limitations/implications

There are some, among them, sample size and sampling procedure; only one sector was analysed and, although reliability is acceptable, the number of items in each measurement scale was reduced to only two.

Practical implications

Wearout and the characteristics of an SMS message capable to generate positive attitude are described.

Social implications

Guidelines to improve public attitudes towards SMS advertising and prevention from wearout are given.

Originality/value

Wearout in the mobile advertising context is explored and some insights regarding irritation antecedents and the role played by frequency and other positive factors in the causal model proposed by the academy are assessed.

Purpose

Like brands memes earn their own value (Csikszentmihályi, 1993), which we describe as meme value derived from brand equity theory (Aaker, 1996; Keller, 2003). This meme value is rather temporary that may quickly escalate and suddenly drop, therefore its circumstances of appearance and subsistence are to be further investigated. The purpose of this study is to uncover underlying factors of internet meme value. Internet meme value comprises of length of subsistence, number of contributions, number of variations, areas of applicability, ability to convey messages, quality of creativity.

Methodology/approach

We recorded 95 respondents’ narratives about 125 different memes, altogether 281 memes (2013 spring), and further 47 respondents’ narratives (2014 autumn). Recorded narratives reflect these dimensions.

Findings

Our exploratory research showed that internet memes would become successful – exist, spread and vary – if their central thought is clear and is applicable in a variety of contexts. Furthermore, meme value could be enriched by humorous content (Shifman & Thelwall, 2009) societal questions, emotionally involving situations, and potential for self-expression.

Originality/value

Based on our results we extend the internet meme value concept with a meteorite metaphor that explains the speed, scope, impact of internet memes. We use the notions of astronomy Meteoroid, Meteor (shooting star), Fireball, Meteorite, Comet and suggest a future classification of internet memes that could be: MEMEoroid, MEMEor, MEMEball, MEMEorite, CoMEMEt.

Part III Hidden but Paid for: Branded Content

Purpose

This chapter takes a deeper look into understanding an increasingly popular advertising tool – product placement (PP) – by defining it, examining its usage and measuring its consequences, both from a marketing and a consumer welfare perspective. It also tries to reconcile these contradictory perspectives to achieve a common ground and a positive outcome for all stakeholders.

Methodology/approach

A literature review of current research findings, from both a marketing and public policy perspective, is used to arrive at a more balanced viewpoint of PP.

Practical implications

Public policy makers are advised to improve the consistency of current regulations in terms of PP disclosure in the media, regardless of where a programme is produced or broadcast, to help create savvier consumers. Marketers are advised not to fight against PP regulations, but rather to develop their creativity in order to avoid consumers rejecting the disclosed placement.

Social implications

We address consumers’ ability to raise a protective shield when they encounter a PP situation. We explain how certain disclosures regarding the commercial intent of PP may be more effective than others, thereby empowering consumers to manage their behaviour and make informed decisions. We then describe how PP can be used to educate consumers about pro-social issues in an entertaining, non-patronising way.

Originality/value

This chapter proposes to go beyond the usual divide between advertisers and policy makers to arrive at a balanced view, considering the positive role that PP may play in education, while mitigating its potential negative impacts through effective consumer training.

Purpose

This study aims to explain how program liking, program connectedness, and product category involvement influence brand attitudes as a result of advertiser funded programming.

Methodology/approach

We conduct a field study on a panel of real television viewers that were surveyed one week after the final episode of an advertiser funded fashion program was broadcasted. A moderated mediation model is constructed and tested that captures the interplay of three determinants of brand attitudes: program liking, product category involvement, and program connectedness.

Findings

Liking of the program is transferred to brand attitudes. This effect is complementarily mediated by connectedness with the program, and this mediation is moderated by product category involvement. Program liking only spills over to brand attitude through connectedness for viewers with moderate to high levels of involvement with the sponsor product category.

Research implications

The findings add to the understanding of the role of program liking and program connectedness in the formation of brand attitudes. Although prior research has established that liking and connectedness are indeed an important determinant of brand attitudes, this research unveils product category involvement as an important boundary condition for this effect.

Practical implications

Consumers can develop liking for even an advanced form of brand placement, an Advertiser Funded Program (AFP). When consumers’ evaluations of the program are positive, they connect to the program on a personal basis, also leading to positive brand effects. Advertising practitioners should focus on the meaningful integration of their brand in a context that is involving for their target audience.

Purpose

Digital gaming has become one of the largest entertainment sectors worldwide, increasingly turning the medium into an attractive vehicle for the communication of advertising messages. As a result, the incorporation of products or brands in digital games or in-game advertising (IGA) is expected to grow steadily over the course of the following years. However, much work is still needed to determine and optimize the effectiveness of IGA. The goal of the chapter is to advance IGA effectiveness research by investigating the influence of three aspects of the context in which a game is played and the player’s involvement in response to this context on brand awareness.

Methodology/approach

To this purpose, three experiments were set up. The first experiment (between-subjects, N = 121) investigated the impact of the social setting in which a game is played, the second experiment (within-subjects, N = 31) examined the effect of the game controls that are used, and the third experiment (between-subjects, N = 62) analyzed the influence of the game story.

Findings

The findings of the experiments show that the game context can significantly influence the way in which people recall and recognize brands that are included within its environment and that examining the player’s involvement in response to this context can provide useful information regarding the processes underlying this effect.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the knowledge of when, how, and in which games advertising can be incorporated in order to achieve games’ full potential as an advertising medium.

Purpose

The chapter examined the consumer meanings of product placements embedded in social games in different cultural contexts.

Methodology/approach

The theoretical perspective guiding the study is phenomenology, and the essay assignment and in-depth interviews were used to collect data.

Findings

The chapter was based on two qualitative research projects. Findings revealed that consumers in both countries appreciated certain characteristics of product placement in the context of social game, such as subtleness (naturalness) and unobtrusiveness (users’ freedom of choice and proactive choice); consumers’ real-world consumption in both countries seems to be more or less influenced by the product placement in social games; and while the young American consumers didn’t construct specific meanings for Facebook, the Chinese white-collar consumers actively created meanings for the Chinese social-network site.

Social implications

The chapter offered some thick descriptions and in-depth analyses of product placements in social games in different cultural contexts from consumers’ experiential perspectives to enrich our theoretical understanding of product placement in the new media environment as well as to add valuable insights to the research literature on new advertising formats in general.

Originality/value

No study to date has been conducted to explore the product placement in social games in different cultural contexts. The study fills the research gap by exploring US college-aged consumers’ and Chinese white-collar consumers’ interpretations of product placements in the context of social games.

Purpose

The current study examines the effectiveness of brand integrations in music videos by taking into account the impact of both brand placement characteristics (i.e., brand prominence, valence of artist–brand relationship) and audience characteristics (i.e., artist connectedness).

Methodology/approach

A 2 (prominence: prominent vs. subtle) by 2 (valence: positive vs. negative) by 2 (connectedness: high vs. low) between-subjects experimental design is used. Each respondent first watched one music video via YouTube in which one branded product was placed either prominently or subtly. To manipulate the valence of the artist–brand relationship respondents were instructed to read a magazine article that revealed either a positive or negative attitude of the artist toward the placed brand. Two hundred twenty young adults participated in this study.

Findings

This study shows that prominent placements appear to be beneficial for the attitude toward the integrated brand when an individual is strongly connected to the artist in the music video, while subtle placements are beneficial both when an individual is weakly or strongly connected to the artist. Further, negative celebrity-brand relationships do not seem to affect brand attitudes in a negative way.

Practical implications

Embedding the brand in a music video gives marketers and advertisers the chance to reach consumers in a new, creative way. But this study shows that the advertiser should pay attention to the way in which the brand is integrated. Further, negative celebrity information does not seem to affect brand attitudes in a negative way. This makes the music video a very interesting medium for advertisers.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to previous research on brand placement by investigating the effectiveness of brand placements in music videos and the role of artist connectedness. In addition, the study is original as it includes valence in the model.

Purpose

The main purpose of this chapter is to highlight the latest research on the implicit influence of online game advertising on children and to discuss some possible solutions to help them cope with this implicit influence.

Methodology/approach

This chapter reviews key theories and relevant empirical evidence in the literature on advertising to children in order to highlight the implicit influence of online game advertising on children.

Findings

Children can be influenced by online game advertising outside their awareness.

Social implications

The chapter challenges the effectiveness of current advertising literacy education.

Originality/value

This chapter highlights the implicit influence of online game advertising on children. It also proposes alternative approaches to current advertising literacy education to help children cope with the implicit influence.

About the Authors

Pages 397-406
Content available
Free Access

Index

Pages 407-412
Content available
Free Access
Cover of Advertising in New Formats and Media
DOI
10.1108/9781785603129
Publication date
2016-12-29
Editor
ISBN
978-1-78560-313-6
eISBN
978-1-78560-312-9