Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Volume 19


Table of contents

(10 chapters)

Intelligence has been the most widely studied and controversial factor used to explain individual differences in job performance. Measures of general cognitive ability are used in all types of personnel decisions, from selection to training assignments, and are well-established as valid predictors of performance. There is increasing evidence, however, that traditional intelligence tests do not fully capture the abilities associated with performance of real-world tasks. The focus of this work is on the role of practical intelligence as an augmented conceptualization of the abilities needed for real-world success. We review various approaches to understanding practical abilities and describe a program of research centered on the role of experience-based tacit knowledge as an aspect of practical intelligence. We consider the implications that practical intelligence has for applied and theoretical work in the area of human resource management.

The changing nature of work has led to the increased use of teams and increased importance of contextual performance. However, there has been no published research that considers the confluence of these two trends. This chapter addresses this gap. We illustrate how scholars have focused attention on team processes related to the completion of teams' tasks (i.e. taskwork) and also on team processes related to the maintenance of teams' social systems (i.e. teamwork). We suggest that contextual performance (i.e. individual-level behavior that supports the social, organizational, and psychological environment in which task behaviors are performed) underlies teamwork, and task performance (i.e. individual-level behavior focused directly or in support of task accomplishment) underlies taskwork. Because contextual performance research specifies links between specific individual differences and task performance (i.e. individual differences in ability) and contextual performance (i.e. individual differences in personality), this framework provides a foundation for understanding how individual differences ultimately influence team effectiveness. We note several unresolved issues and possible future research directions.

After briefly documenting the continuing problem of racial discrimination in the American workplace, the sources of discrimination were identified. Prejudiced reactions were shown to originate from old-fashioned, blatant racists; non-prejudice persons; and, modern racists. Then, the motivation to inhibit prejudice reactions by each source was examined. Subsequently, three organizational strategies to encourage the inhibition of prejudiced reactions were suggested. Each strategy was described as addressing a particular source (e.g. old-fashioned racists) and failing to be applicable to the other sources. None of the proposed strategies entailed attempting to transform racists into models of racial tolerance. Implications of these ideas for theory and research are examined.

The theory of relational demography within groups has generated considerable interest because of its importance for understanding the meaning and impact of demographic diversity within work organizations. Specifically, relational demography suggests that the more similar an individual is to a social unit in demographic characteristics, the more positive will be his/her work-related attitudes and behaviors. However, previous research has not produced a clear and consistent pattern of results supporting the idea that demographic similarity positively affects individuals' attitudes and behaviors or, conversely, that demographic dissimilarity negatively affects individuals' attitudes and behaviors. It is an appropriate time in the life cycle of relational demography research to conduct a systematic review of the literature. As such, the purposes of this chapter were to describe the theoretical foundations of relational demography, review previous research and identify contradictions, and discuss new directions for future research.

This chapter examines major factors and processes that lead to the development of strategic global human resource management [SGHRM] capability in organizations doing business in emerging markets. The dynamism of this capability is hypothesized to increase as specific structural changes are initiated, such as an innovative practice of inpatriation. It is argued that the inpatriation provides the strategic coherence and flexibility necessary for effective organizational strategies in emerging markets. Through the examination of this innovation in strategic global human resource systems from a knowledge based-view theoretical perspective, the emergence of certain unique and valuable organizational outcomes (i.e. trust, commitment, social capital, and legitimacy) are explained. The potential problems and challenges of implementing an inpatriation program in global negotiations are also examined, with particular focus on gaining acceptance of inpatriate managers in the headquarters organization. In conclusion, specific directions for future research relative to the development of SGHRM capability based on inpatriation as core competency are outlined.

Although the nonprofit sector is enormous, we know little about how workers there are compensated. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the literature is scattered across many fields including Human Resources Management, Accounting, Economics, Finance, Organizational Behavior, Political Science, and Sociology. This chapter aims to synthesize the research on nonprofits from an economics point of view, while carefully considering the work in the many other areas. In addition to using data from the U.S. census to provide a description of employment and wages in the nonprofit sector as well as a comparison with the for-profit sector, this study describes institutional details in nonprofits, considers why organizations form as nonprofits, reviews possible theories for a for-profit/nonprofit wage gap, performance pay in nonprofits, management compensation in nonprofits, gender issues, and international research.

The purpose of this review is to explicate the role of statistics as evidence in employment litigation, especially in regard to statistical proof involving claims of employment discrimination. The use of statistics to uncover discrimination and as a means to criticize or justify varied personnel practices is examined, drawing upon legal, scientific, statistical, and psychological literature. Statistical evidence is scrutinized as potentially persuasive indirect evidence of discrimination, with an emphasis on the utilization of statistical methods under the theories of adverse impact and disparate treatment. In order to explore the historical context and contemporary use of specific statistical techniques in employment discrimination litigation, an extensive investigation of statistics presented in cases filed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 is conducted. Criticisms and perceived benefits of statistical analyses in litigation are addressed, as are future trends pertaining to advanced statistical methodology and the acceptance of statistics in the legal arena. Implications for human resource management policies and practices are presented.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
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Emerald Publishing Limited
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