Research in Finance: Volume 22

Table of contents

(15 chapters)

Contents

Pages v-vi
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List of contributors

Pages vii-viii
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Introduction

Pages ix-x

A total of 12 papers in this volume represent some current research on important topics in finance. The contributions include analyses of issues relating to the recent reforms on corporate governance, the behavior of stock returns, the option pricing models, the financial regulation and banking theory, and the international finance. Kensinger and Poe argue that the legal status of corporations and the higher costs of Sarbanes-Oxley will accelerate further hollowing of public corporations. Using stock price reactions to the information in joint venture announcements, Keown, et al. find that the market considers relevant information for valuing the firms apart from the joint venture itself. Based upon data from a large sample of global financial markets, Cao and Wei find empirical evidence strongly supporting the negative relationship between stock returns and temperature. Kang and Ding find differential results of stock returns on the financial signals in Asian financial markets. Chen et al. develop a binomial-tree pricing model for Stock Participation Accreting Redemption Quarterly pay Securities (SPARQS), and show the pricing performance of the model. Lai and Soumare analyze the investment incentives in project finance in the presence of government financial guarantees. Chang et al. develop option-pricing models with price limits and market illiquidity and show that both of these market imperfections have significant impact on the option values.

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This paper explores the advantages (for large investors) of directly owning productive assets, compared with indirect ownership through stock in corporations. Significant factors are agency costs and recent changes in the tax and regulatory environment. Recent corporate scandals have led to legislative and regulatory responses that significantly increase the monitoring costs and other burdens of becoming or remaining a public corporation. As a result, there has been a substantial increase in going-private transactions, particularly among smaller public companies. However, the pressures to go private are not entirely new. We trace the legal concept that the corporation is an entity separate and apart from its owners, showing how the legal status of corporations hinders resolution of conflicts among the parties to the enterprise. Thus, there have long been fundamental flaws inherent in the corporation as the form of organization for certain activities. Direct ownership of major assets by investors prevents future expropriation of resources, and is preferable to corporate ownership whenever other alternatives for indemnification or liability limitation are available (such as insurance, limited partnerships, limited liability companies, etc.). Finally, the renewal of direct ownership is not a radical shift, but a return to long-established tradition in the organization of business activities.

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Partner firms to the same joint venture experience sharply different stock price reactions. These differences cannot be explained by mechanical factors related to differences in firm size and ownership share in the project, nor are they attributable to different partner roles in the project or differences in investor anticipation of the announcement. We conclude that the stock price reactions reflect a revaluation of non-project assets that is different for each partner. Additionally, we find evidence indicating that investors infer information about agency problems (in the sense of Jensen, 1986) from the joint venture announcements and subsequently, revalue the whole firm – not just the marginal project being announced. Finally, we find that free cash flow is value-enhancing for one type of partner firm after we control for the extent of agency problems.

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This is a companion paper to our previous study in Cao and Wei (2005) on stock market temperature anomaly for eight international stock markets. The temperature anomaly is characterized by a negative relationship between stock market returns and temperature. This line of work relies on the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature, on mood and behavior changes. In this paper, we expand the sample in Cao and Wei (2005) to include 19 additional financial markets. Our evidence confirms the identified negative relationship for the expanded sample. More importantly, our nonparametric tests, as opposite to the parametric or semi-parametric approaches used by previous related studies, demonstrate that this negative relationship is robust to distributional assumptions. Based on the sub-sample analysis, we find that this negative relationship is stable over time. Furthermore, we consider temperature deviation and demonstrate that this negative relationship is not just a level effect.

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The study discussed in this article examines two empirical questions: (1) Can multiple financial signals enhance the intermediate-horizon returns of value and glamour investments on Asian stock markets? and (2) Do the return enhancements, if any, differ by value and growth firm types and vary across different markets? The results of this study show that financial signals affect return enhancements, and these enhancements differ by firm types and vary across markets. These differences can be explained by non-positive value premiums and relatively poor information quality documented on Asian markets.

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Stock Participation Accreting Redemption Quarterly-pay Securities (SPARQS), a service mark of Morgan Stanley, represent another form of equity-linked structured notes. The SPARQS generally provide the investors with higher interest payments that substantially exceed the market interest rate for corresponding standard bonds, in exchange for a call feature. The call option limits the potential appreciation of the SPARQS in case the underlying common stock price rises. Moreover, the SPARQS are mandatorily convertible at maturity that entail more risk than ordinary debts due to the possibility that investors might not receive their principal amount in case the underlying common stock price declines. This paper derives a general pricing formula for the SPARQS using the binomial tree approach. An empirical test of a specific SPARQS issue indicates that the binomial tree model is quite accurate.

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In this paper, we study the role of government financial guarantees as catalyst for project finance (PF). On the one hand, the government's incentive compatibility and participation constraint determine the optimal portion of the loan to be backed. On the other, the borrowing interest rate satisfies the debtholders’ participation constraint. The project's sponsor may choose to underinvest or overinvest depending on its own capital contribution, the risk technology, the risk measurement errors, and the proportion of guarantee provided by the government. We derive the project optimal investment level as well as the government partial loan guarantee coverage. We also discuss the impact of the risk measurement errors on the project's credit spreads.

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The effects of price limits and market illiquidity are crucial for pricing derivatives based on some underlying assets traded in the markets with a price limit rule and an illiquidity phenomenon. We develop models to value options for the cases of either the underlying assets encountering price limits and market illiquidity, or when the underlying assets are imposed with price limits and the options themselves show market illiquidity in this paper. The Black–Scholes (1973) model, the Krakovsky (1999) model, and the Ban, Choi, and Ku (2000) model are presented as special cases of our model. Our numerical results show that both the price limit and market illiquidity significantly affect the option values.

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Deregulation and other factors permit and encourage financial institutions to become more integrated, both within their own (financial) industries, such as banking and insurance, and across these industries. Financial regulators have responded with like integration. As financial institutions increasingly compete with firms from other industries and areas, financial regulators similarly compete more across borders. The resulting competition in financial regulation enhances innovation, choice, and efficiency. The advent of home-run regulation, which in general allows financial institutions to adhere only to the financial regulations of their home area and is spreading across the US and Europe, may allow numerous regulatory regimes within a given market.

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We consider two economic aspects of required reserves on bank deposits, their impact on bank-intermediated investment versus direct investment and their opportunity cost. We show that Bank reserves serve as a buffer to mitigate inefficient liquidation of a bank's assets in order to meet the demand for liquidity by investors. Due to some transaction costs or information costs, investors may prefer bank-intermediated investment to direct investment. Banks offer investors competitive deposit returns compared to the liquidation value of investment to attract funds from investors. If the Federal Reserve allows banks to set their individual optimal level of reserves, this might mitigate costs associated with required reserves. If banks implement the social optimum, this may introduce additional fragility into the banking system. We argue that required reserves might lead to deadweight loss if they are set above a bank's optimally determined reserves.

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We investigate the nature of mid-loan relationships between bank-lenders and borrowers, to test whether firms borrow from banks to signal quality. Using the LPC DealScan, CRSP, and Wall Street Journal databases, we test whether borrower abnormal returns are related to bank, borrower, deal, and/or event characteristics during the duration of the loan. We demonstrate that borrower abnormal returns are related to mid-loan bank events, defined as an event resulting in bank abnormal returns beyond a specified threshold. The results suggest that borrowers are affected by bank events mid-loan, even when the event is not directly related to bank default.

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Vector error-correction models (VECMs) have become increasingly important in their application to financial markets. Standard full-order VECM models assume non-zero entries in all their coefficient matrices. However, applications of VECM models to financial market data have revealed that zero entries are often a necessary part of efficient modelling. In such cases, the use of full-order VECM models may lead to incorrect inferences. Specifically, if indirect causality or Granger non-causality exists among the variables, the use of over-parameterised full-order VECM models may weaken the power of statistical inference. In this paper, it is argued that the zero–non-zero (ZNZ) patterned VECM is a more straightforward and effective means of testing for both indirect causality and Granger non-causality. For a ZNZ patterned VECM framework for time series of integrated order two, we provide a new algorithm to select cointegrating and loading vectors that can contain zero entries. Two case studies are used to demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm in tests of purchasing power parity and a three-variable system involving the stock market.

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Foreign exchange rates are examined using cointegration tests over various time periods linked to regime shifts in central bank behavior. The number of cointegrating vectors appears to vary across these regime changes within the foreign exchange market. For example, cointegration is not generally found prior to the Plaza Agreement of September 22, 1985, but it is present after that date. The significance of these changes is evaluated using a likelihood ratio procedure proposed by Quintos (1994). The changing nature of the cointegrating relationships indicate that certain aspects of central bank activity do have long-term effects on exchange rates.

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DOI
10.1016/S0196-3821(2005)22
Publication date
Book series
Research in Finance
Editor
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-0-76231-277-1
Book series ISSN
0196-3821