Fowler, D. and Yuan, J. (2012), "Advances in global perspective of tourism shopping research: introduction to a special issue on “Tourism and shopping behavior research", International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 6 No. 3. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijcthr.2012.32706caa.001Download as .RIS
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Advances in global perspective of tourism shopping research: introduction to a special issue on “Tourism and shopping behavior research
Article Type: Guest editorial From: International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Volume 6, Issue 3
Shopping is an important facet of the tourism process which enhances the overall tourist experience. Shoppers seek to purchase sovenirs and goods they cannot purchase outside their home environment. Our desire to bring home something that reminds of us of our travel experience drives retailing in tourism venues. Recent research studies as well as government bureaus have documented the impact of the retailing on tourism. In this special issue the writers research such diverse topics as tourism shopping in rural Iowa in the USA, outdoor markets in Taiwan, shoppers in a leading sun and sand destination in Mallorca (Spain), the impact of safety concerns on shoppers, a conceptual exploration of tourism shopping behavior, and conclude with a geographically diverse study of shoppers in eight tourist-destination shopping centers in the USA. The common binding facet of each of these papers is the importance of shopping in validating the value of the tourism experience. This primal instinct of gathering continues to play an important role in the human experience. When a ship docks at a port of call, other than visiting interesting destinations, a key component of the visit is shopping. As travelers pass through customs and immigration the traveler must declare the value of their purchases, not the value of their trip. As you read the articles presented in this special issue, you will see a world-wide perspective of shopping venues and shoppers in the context of tourism.
Tourism shopping in rural markets: a case study in rural Iowa
Hurst and Niehm conducted an exploratory study of retail service delivery in rural tourism markets. Using Dillman’s (2007) survey techniques, data were collected from two different groups: resident customers and tourist customers in a rural Iowa tourism community. Shopping experiences were much less satisfying for resident customers than for tourist customers in this study. Tourism retailers may not be effectively differentiating their customer service or providing adequate attention during the shopping experience, particularly to resident customers. Rural tourism retailers need to develop a comprehensive customer relationship management strategy to encourage repeat shopping and sustained patronage behavior. This study provides valuable strategic implications for rural tourism entrepreneurs, business consultants and economic development professionals in rural tourism communities while filling a void in the tourism and patronage literature.
Consumption of renao at a Taiwan night market
Ackerman and Walker examines the effect of the physical environment of night markets in Taiwan, mediated by “renao” (translated as bustling with noise and excitement) on need fulfillment and shopping satisfaction. Grounded theory, interviews and observation in their first study identifies concepts important to understanding why consumers shopped in night markets. The second study employs a survey method to test findings from the first one concerning relationships between fulfillment of social and hedonic needs, physical factors and renao on consumer perceptions of the night market. This paper suggests the experience of being around many people creating bustle and excitement in the retail environment is important to need fulfillment and satisfaction of shoppers in this collectivist culture. This study will help those in tourism and hospitality planning understand how socio-cultural norms influence use of retail space and leisure shopping satisfaction.
Tourist characteristics that influence shopping participation and expenditures
Algere and Cladera’s paper explores tourist and trip-related characteristics and tourist motivations in connection with the decision to participate in shopping and for those tourists who decide to participate, the main determinants of the amount of expenditure, by estimating a Heckman model. Data were collected in the high season of 2008 in Mallorca (Spain), a leading Mediterranean sun and sand destination. The results indicate different motivations and tourist and trip-related characteristics are associated with the decision whether or not to participate in shopping and with the level of shopping expenditure. This facilitates the identification of the type of tourist may be of more interest to the destination in terms of shopping behaviour. The main contribution of this paper consists in the joint analysis of shopping participation and expenditure amount as a result of trip-related characteristics and travel motivations.
Safety concerns of international shoppers in Las Vegas
Fowler, Lauderdale, Goh, and Yuan assessed international tourists’ perception of safety while shopping in the USA, using Las Vegas as the study site. Over recent years, Las Vegas became an international destination for visitors from the Asia-Pacific region to celebrate Chinese New Year. In February 2007, Las Vegas hosted the NBA All-Star Game for the first time from February 16-18. The two major events occurred over the same weekend. When two cultures shared a single site, however, the combination presented an issue of safety concern. Data were collected using an intercept methodology over the three-day period in a major shopping venue/casino from February 15-17, 2007. As the week progressed, Asian visitors were less likely to feel their person and belongings were safe in the three major venues researched of restaurants, shopping centers, and amusement parks. Few papers have addressed the safety concerns of international tourists in the United States, specifically in Las Vegas. Findings of this study contribute to the safety and security management of various tourist venues.
Tourism shopping behavior: planned, impulsive, or experiential?
Through this conceptual paper, Meng and Xu attempt to expand the understanding of the nature of tourist shopping behavior by exploring influences of the components of planned behavior, impulsive behavior, and experiential consumption on tourists’ intentions to shop/purchase in the tourism context. After a review and investigation of the major current research in the subject areas they proposed a framework for tourist shopping intention and actual purchase behavior in which the behavior is influenced by various indicators. In other words, tourist shopping behavior is a mixture of planned, impulsive, and experiential consumption behavior. The resulting theoretical framework of provides an inclusive overarching structure systematically explaining the nature of tourist shopping behavior from the perspectives of planned behavior, impulsive buying, and experiential consumption. This study will provide better information and understanding of the factors influencing tourist shopping behavior, which, in turn, will lead to improved planning, marketing and management of sales, expenditures and opportunities in the tourism and retail industries.
Travel motivation as a determinant of shopping venue
Kinley, Forney, and Kim examined travel motivation as a predictor of the importance assigned to desired shopping center attributes for three different shopping centers, and their effect on satisfaction, and re-patronage intention. Data were collected via mall-intercept surveys from 624 tourist shoppers at seven shopping centers. For the superregional center, a linear relationship was computed for the exploration travel motive, mall environment, overall satisfaction and re-patronage intention. Interestingly, overall satisfaction with the shopping center was not a significant predictor of re-patronage intention in the theme/festival or super off-price centers. For retailers and tourism venues the determination of the importance of shopping in the travel agenda, and identification and consideration of different travel motivations can facilitate development of the shopping center environment for maximum customer satisfaction. These findings can be particularly useful in designing amenities and targeting promotional campaigns to different audiences.
In summary, each of these contributions focuses on different aspects of the shopping experience for tourists. The data collection sites were global in nature; however, the theme remains the same: shopping is important to the tourist and to the tourism venues. The economic impact of the shopping, along with the expenditures for other tour-related activities, contributes a great deal to many economies throughout the world. The purpose of this special issue is to bring a broad perspective to a seemingly narrow topic so that researchers in academia and industry can better understand the shopper who also happens to be a tourist.
Deborah C. FowlerAssociate Professor at the Department of Nutrition, Hospitality & Retailing, Texas Tech University, USA, E-mail: email@example.com
Jingxue (Jessica) YuanAssociate Professor at the Department of Nutrition, Hospitality & Retailing, Texas Tech University, USA.