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MODES OF ENTRY SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS USED BY U.S. MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN WESTERN EUROPE

Sam C. Okoroafo (Associate Professor of International Business at University of Toledo)

International Journal of Commerce and Management

ISSN: 1056-9219

Article publication date: 1 March 1992

Abstract

The patterns used by international firms to substitute modes of entry in foreign product markets could be incremental in the chain from exporting to investment (incremental pattern) or could be haphazard and unpredictable (non‐incremental pattern). This study develops models representing the substitution patterns then tests them using data on exporting, licensing and investments flows of U.S. manufacturing firms to Western Europe during the 1980–88 period. The findings suggest that U.S. manufacturing firms at the aggregate level used the non‐incremental pattern.

Citation

Okoroafo, S.C. (1992), "MODES OF ENTRY SUBSTITUTION PATTERNS USED BY U.S. MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN WESTERN EUROPE", International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 2 No. 3/4, pp. 32-45. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb060309

Publisher

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MCB UP Ltd

Copyright © 1992, MCB UP Limited