There is a general notion that immunology represents one of the more recently emerged branches in the field of science. Its actual roots, however, go back to the late 19th century when scientists like Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich — just to name a few — laid the basis for active immunisation against bacterial infections. Following the discovery of the virus and its structure, immunisation against viral infections was developed, the most spectacular and effective treatments being vaccinations against smallpox and poliomyelitis.
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