WHEN oil refiners have refined about as far as they can, they are left with a residue — bitumen. Its properties and character vary with the crude oil being refined. The bitumen producer blends and treats different raw bitumens to produce three main types for use in industry. In addition, oil company subsidiaries and independents process the bitumens to produce bitumen emulsions, bituminous mastics, and bituminous solutions and in latter years homogeneous blends of bitumen with resins and other materials. Such processed materials can be used as adhesives, sealants, waterproofing materials, flooring and road surfacing binders, insulation accessories, and general waterproofing and building protection coatings, quite apart from their widespread use in industrial processes.
Kelland, A. (1980), "Penetration, Blown and Hard: No it's not something kinky but that wonder material…", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 80 No. 9, pp. 8-10. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb057101Download as .RIS
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