In almost all discussions of the processes of organizational planning and policy formulation, one is eventually confronted with two contradictory points of view. On one side are the “rationalists,” who conceptualize the planning process by postulating a set of theoretical premises, analytical techniques, and organizational relationships which can be linked together to achieve a formally structured, logical system of policy formulation. Parties supporting this view typically argue that the planning process can be improved by the development of new theories and analytical tools to implement such a normative system. On the other side are the “intuitionalists”; those promoting this viewpoint generally start with a list of “horror” stories pointing out the deficiencies, nonuses, and misuses of the so‐called rational systems. These parties generally reach the conclusion that more skill and more judgment — not formal approaches or new analytical methodology — are the essential elements in improving the planning process.
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