An accurate integration is one of the key steps in the application of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to the computation of electromagnetic fields. The integrations are generally calculated by means of Gaussian Quadrature Formulas, which work efficiently when d ≥ 1, where d = δ/Lj and δ is the minimum distance from a source point to an element of length Lj. But difficulties will occur when the source point is situated at or very near to the field point (i.e. r=0 or r<ε with r≠0), leading to a singular or nearly singular integration.
Shen, J. and Kost, A. (1992), "ACCURATE INTEGRATIONS IN THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR 2D‐ EDDY CURRENTS", COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 41-44. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb051747
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