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The underground press of the Vietnam era: An annotated bibliography

Anne E. Zald (Reference librarian, Oberlin College Library, Oberlin, Ohio)
Cathy Seitz Whitaker (Reference librarian in the social sciences department of the Carnegie Public Library, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)

Reference Services Review

ISSN: 0090-7324

Article publication date: 1 April 1990



Despite the title of this bibliography, there was not a truly underground press in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. The phrase is amisnomer, reputedly coined on the spur of the moment in 1966 by Thomas Forcade when asked to describe the newly established news service, Underground Press Syndicate, of which he was an active member. The papers mentioned in this bibliography, except for the publications of the Weather Underground, were not published by secretive, covert organizations. Freedom of the press and of expression is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution, although often only symbolically as the experience of the undergrounds will show, and most of the publications that fall into the “underground” described herein maintained public offices, contracted with commercial printers, and often used the U.S. Postal Service to distribute their publications.


Zald, A.E. and Seitz Whitaker, C. (1990), "The underground press of the Vietnam era: An annotated bibliography", Reference Services Review, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 76-96.




Copyright © 1990, MCB UP Limited

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