Smuggling represents a significant proportion of world trade. However, its nature and rationale are not sufficiently understood in comparison with those of counterfeiting, parallel importing and contraband trade. The willing or unwilling involvement of MNCs in smuggling is also poorly perceived. These issues are reviewed here as well as actions aimed at reducing smuggling's growth.
Ayitey Stephens, R., Boddewyn, J.J. and Ross Sproul, S. (1991), "INTERNATIONAL SMUGGLING: ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND CORPORATE IMPLICATIONS", International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 1 No. 1/2, pp. 4-25. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047271
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