Bus‐side advertising is highly effective, the medium reaching significant numbers of the general population and providing levels of opportunities‐to‐see (or “repetitions”) surpassing those of virtually all other media, at a relatively low cost. Research conducted around five advertisements (each different) in four cities (Leeds, Manchester, Glasgow and Newcastle‐upon‐Tyne) indicates that a minimum campaign weight of 15 per cent is necessary to ensure adequate repetition across all population sectors for an eight‐week duration. Bus sides require their own creative treatment, the characteristics of the medium (moving display, size limitations and, possibly, bus colour) must be considered. No definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding effectiveness of the three different types of bus‐side advertising (side, superside and T‐shape) but advertisers should beware of “losing” elements presented on the stalk of the T. Buses are effective as a solus medium and as part of a multi‐media campaign; they can act as “reminder” advertising, carry emotive messages, link product and retail outlets in the city in which they operate, and they can also brand.
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