Cotgrove and Duff, among others, suggest that planned human behaviour, both personal and collective, is influenced by values. Therefore any change or discrepancy in value systems might provide a major key to understanding social and personality change. Previous empirical research has shown values, for example, to be determinant of managerial practices, to influence managerial decisions, to affect organisational goals and strategy, to be related to motivation, and work satisfaction. The study of values enables researchers to deal with the individual in society and to analyse social process and structure. Furthermore, extensive evidence suggests that the understanding and monitoring of values associated with the work environment is a critical influence on organisational efficiency and effectiveness.
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