The design of temperature‐compensated quartz crystal oscillators (TCXOs) in thick film hybrid technology is described. TCXOs controlled by varicap diodes are usually realised with discrete NTC thermistors and resistors. Data obtained by precision measurements of voltages on varicap diodes for the same oscillator frequencies over the operating temperature range are used for calculating values of the NTC thermistors and resistors. In most cases these values cannot be found in the Renard scale, with the result that manipulation or ‘juggling’ of values is necessary. The realisation of temperature‐compensating circuits in thick film technology has certain advantages, such as miniaturisation, better characteristics at high frequencies and in particular the possibility to trim thick film resistors and NTC thermistors to values calculated for each oscillator. The method of realisation of TCXOs in thick film hybrid technology was developed and verified on prototypes. The compensation curves were obtained by measuring compensation voltages for each oscillator over the operating temperature range from — 20°C to 70°C. From these data the values of resistors and NTC thermistors were calculated. A computer program was used to minimise frequency instability error as a function of six parameters (resistance). The frequency stability (Δf/f) of TCXOs obtained was better than ±2 ppm.
Pavšek, M., Belavič, D., Kunaver, U. and Hrovat, M. (1992), "Crystal Oscillator with Temperature Compensation Realised in Thick Film Technology", Microelectronics International, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 8-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb044474
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