Companies have been predicting marketing and economic conditions for years, but they lag behind in forecasting environmental changes that can have dramatic impact on their operations. SPIRE is a systematic approach to spotting coming problems, as a look at how one company put it to work indicates.
Klein, H. and Newman, W. (1980), "HOW TO USE SPIRE: A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFYING RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTS FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING", Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 32-45. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb038887Download as .RIS
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