A mechanical and microstructural study was performed of 43/43/14 tin/lead/bismuth solder. This alloy melts lower than the commonly used tin/lead solders and therefore holds promise as a useful material in two‐step soldering processes or in processes with thermally sensitive components. Mechanical testing of 43/43/14 tin/lead/bismuth showed a strength comparable to that of tin/lead solders but increased creep rate. Microstructural analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X‐ray) exhibited the same mechanism of fatigue as for tin/lead solders, viz., heterogeneous coarsening. Thermocyclic fatigue demonstrated that the long‐term reliability of 43/43/14 tin/lead/bismuth is comparable to that of tin/lead solders.
Marshall, J.L., Calderon, J. and Sees, J. (1991), "Microstructural and Mechanical Characterisation of 43/43/14 Tin/Lead/Bismuth", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb037766
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