The bulk of jet engine noise developed at high powers arises from the turbulent mixing of the jet efflux in the surrounding air, as judged from model experiments, and has a continuous spectrum with a single flat maximum. The high frequency sound arises from fairly close to the orifice, and reaches its maximum intensity at fairly large acute angles to the jet direction. Lower frequency noise arises from lower down stream and its maxima make smaller acute angles with the jet axis. The possible origins are briefly discussed in view of Lighthill's theory and refraction effects. The most intensesound has a wave‐length of the order of three or four exit diameters, and originates between five and ten diameters from the orifice. A semi‐empirical rule of noise energy depending on the jet velocity to the eighth power and the jet diameter squared gives a rough estimate of the noise level for both cold and heated jets. Further noise from heated or supersonic jets may occur through eddies travelling at supersonic speed and so producing small Shockwaves. Model experiments have shown that interaction between shock‐wave configurations in choked jets and passing eddy trains generates sound and this initiates further eddies at the orifice. The directional properties of this sound are quite distinctive, the maximum being in the upstream direction. Methods of reducing jet noise are briefly discussed.
Powell, A. (1954), "A Survey of Experiments on Jet Noise: A Study of the Mechanism of Noise Production of Jet Engines, with Brief Notes on its Reduction", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 2-8. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb032376
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