IT is well known that cross‐sections of a thin‐walled shell, unconstrained at the ends, do not necessarily remain plane under the action of an applied torque, but may undergo axial displacement or warp, as it is called.
Morse, W. (1953), "The Warping of Thin Shells: A Method of Calculation Derived and Applied to Particular Cases", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp. 144-146. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb032290
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