IN the strength testing of major components of aircraft structures, considerations of time and expense do not usually permit the use of more than one specimen of any component. However, it has long been realized that, if a number of nominally identical specimens of any given component were tested, there would be some variation in failing load and probably in mode of failure, and that this variation would depend on the type of construction.
Raithby, K.D. (1952), "Variation in Strength of Nominally Identical Tail Planes: A Report on Research Revealing the Extent of Scatter in the Strength of Light Alloy Structures Manufactured to the Same Design", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 24 No. 8, pp. 223-225. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb032188
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