THE torsional instability of a column is most likely to occur with open‐section columns such as channels and Z‐sections as they are very inefficient in resisting torsion. For calculating the torsional strength of open‐section columns there is a general lack of information and few experimental checks on predicted values are available.
Malik, I.M.K. (1951), "Torsional Column Strength of Thinned‐Walled Open Sections: A Mechanical Method of Calculating the Torsional Bending Constant for a Rolled Z‐Section Stringer", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 211-211. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb032059
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