PROFESSOR PUGSLEY was the first to have popularized the term ‘philosophy’ in connexion with airworthiness. Generally, unless structures are completely safe they are regarded as unsafe. A flying machine, however, can at best be only approximately safe. Hence the need for an a priori definition of safety. Not only is it necessary to make a statistically definable sacrifice of safety to obtain a machine which will fly at all, let alone lift an economical payload, but this sacrifice must be spread in a certain manner to give acceptable returns.
Shapiro, J. (1951), "Airworthiness Requirements and Fatigue of Helicopters: Some Unconventional and Controversial Reflexions on the True Significance of Failures and How to Avoid Them", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 32-54. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb031995Download as .RIS
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