IT is well known that an originally plane section of a thin‐walled shell warps out of the plane of section when torsion and/or transverse shear is applied. The effects of local constraint of the warping have been investigated, mainly for doubly symmetrical shells. However, it does not appear to be generally known that constraint of a shell subject to a transverse load produces rotation of sections and reciprocally.
Fine, M. (1950), "The Warping and Constraint of Certain Rectangular Box Sections: Calculation of the Effect on a Simple Type of Shell of the Results of Torsion and Flexure", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 172-173. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb031909
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