The term “braced frame” is here understood to mean one which has at least enough members to ensure stability, i.e. it must either be “just‐stiff” or “redundant”. The analysis of such a frame on the assumption that the joints are frictionless, so that each member is free to turn at both ends, enables one to calculate primary stresses. In practical frames the connexions at the joints are more or less rigid; bending moments are therefore induced in the members when the joints are displaced. The resulting bending stresses may be of the same order as the primary direct stresses. In addition, the direct stress in any member is itself slightly modified by the shear forces in the other members connected with it, though this effect is usually small.
Cornish M.Sc., R.J. (1944), "Analysis of Plane Braced Frames: Secondary Stresses due to Rigidity of Joints", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 41-46. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb031095
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