ORDINARILY, for the purpose of strength calculations, as well as in estimating bending and torsional rigidity with a view to deriving blade deflections and investigating flutter characteristics, the blade is regarded as flat (i.e. as if designed for zero pitch); any effects of the twisted form of the blade in causing departures from the classical bending and torsion theories being regarded as secondary. It has never, however, been proved that they are actually negligible, and an approximate analysis indicates that they may in some cases become appreciable.
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