IN view of the extensive employment of fluids in the operation and control of modern aero‐engines and aircraft equipment, it is essential that a clear understanding of the laws governing the motion of such fluids is possessed by those interested in the design of the systems involved. In the various applications normally encountered in aeronautical work, such as the induction system of an engine, or the hydraulic circuit of a control system, the type of problem which arises most frequently is that dealing with the effects on flow produced by restrictions in the path of a fluid. It is obvious that there can be no limit to the variety of forms these can assume and one need only contemplate the fuel system of, say, a four‐engine aircraft to appreciate that a detailed analysis of the eifects produced by the numerous restrictions and changes of passage form is beyond the scope of an article of this nature. In fact, many such, cases can only be completely solved by experimental determination, since the flow characteristics depend entirely upon the conditions that prevail and for which no previous data of similar conditions may exist.
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