WHEN metal parts are exposed to alterations of temperature, their outer dimensions undergo a change. With rising temperatures metals expand, with falling temperatures they contract. If different temperatures exist within one and the same metal member, internal stresses begin to act, causing a deformation of the component and thus setting up internal strains. Cracks, buckling, distortion and shrinkage are the external results of such strains.
Queitsch, K. (1939), "Welding Technique in Aircraft Construction: Some Practical Hints on the Welding of Steel Tubes", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 11 No. 12, pp. 455-458. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb030584
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