IN the following notes the phenomenon of ground looping (which may be defined as an uncontrollable fast turn on the ground) is briefly analysed by semi‐technical methods. The analysis has been restricted to a condition which in the opinion of experienced pilots causes trouble most frequently: namely, a landing with dead stick, when there is no slipstream available to make the rudder more effective. The equations of lateral motion for an aeroplane in contact with the ground have been written clown as an introduction to more thorough study. Finally, certain tentative conclusions have been drawn for application in aeroplane design with a view to eliminating or at least reducing ground loop tendencies.
Klemin, A. (1935), "The Phenomenon of Ground Looping: Uncontrollable Fast Turns on the Ground when the Rudder is Ineffective", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb029920
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